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Ch 6 Ancient Rome

from the republic to the fall of an empire

What is a republic? [6:1] a form of government in which citizens vote for their representatives
Who were patricians? [6:1] aristocratic landowners who held most of the power in republican Rome; inherited power & social status
Who were plebeians? [6:1] common farmers, merchants and artisans who made up the majority of Roman population; could vote but not hold high offices
Who were tribunes? [6:1] representatives of the plebeians who formed their own assembly in Rome
What was the Twelve Tables? [6:1] first written law code in Rome; all citizens had protection of the law
Who were consuls? [6:1] Roman officials who commanded the army and directed government; served in pairs for one-year terms
What was the Senate? [6:1] aristocratic branch of Roman government composed of 300 members of upper classes; had legislative and administrative powers
What was a dictator? [6:1] leader who had absolute power to make laws and command army; was appointed in times of crisis for 6 month terms by the Senate
What was the Roman Legion? [6:1] large military units of 5000 foot soldiers; each had a nickname and flag (its eagle). subdivided into smaller units called a Century (80 men) and Calvary units
What was important about Rome's location? [6:1] gave it strategic advantage for trade or war in the center of the Mediterranean Sea
Why did Rome battle Carthage? [6:1] Punic Wars fought three times between 264 and 146 BC for control of the Mediterranean trade, setting the stage for more conquests to the East
What led to the collapse of the Republic? [6:2] attempt to reform land led by Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus led to civil war with the aristocratic Senate; military generals assumed control, leading to instability
Who was Julius Caesar? [6:2] Roman general who conquered Gaul and seized power as dictator for life, gaining popular support by providing pensions and land to common people before being assassinated by jealous rivals (nobles & senators)
What is an absolute ruler? [6:2] one who has total power over government
How did Rome become an Empire? [6:2] following Caesar's death, his adopted son Octavian defeated rivals and accepted title of "Augustus"-(exalted one) & title of "imperator"-(supreme military commander), from which the term emperor comes from
What was the Pax Romana? [6:2] period of peace and prosperity (27 BC - 180 AD) as the Roman Empire expanded to over 3 million square miles from all of Europe to North Africa and the Middle East regions
Who were the apostles [6:3] disciples of Jesus who are thought to have written the gospels of the New Testament
Who was Paul? [6:3] a convert to the followers of Jesus who became a major influence on the spread of Christianity, preaching the gospel of salvation and writing letters that became part of the New Testament that welcomed all non-Jews to the faith
What was the Diaspora? [6:3] the expulsion of Jews from their homeland in Palestine by Roman armies in 135 AD
what is a bishop? [6:3] a priest who supervised other local churches; tradition says Peter became the first bishop of Rome
What is a Pope? [6:3] the father or head of the Christian Church; since Rome was head of the Empire, the bishop of Rome was considered the head of the church
Who was Constantine? [6:3] Roman emperor who saw sign of the cross before an important battle and ended the persecution of Christians in Rome. it became official religion of the Empire
What is heresy? [6:3] any teaching or belief that appeared to contradict the teachings of the church in Rome
What was the Nicene Creed? [6:3] council that met to define the basic beliefs of the church and chose which scriptures became part of the Bible
Who was Augustine? [6:3] bishop of Hippo in Africa who wrote text: City of God; "God's heavenly city could not be destroyed despite the fall of Rome"
What caused the Decline of Rome? [6:4] high cost of maintaining the Empire led to inflation and high taxes; poor harvests; constant invasions by Germanic tribes & use of mercenaries who fought for money instead of loyalty to Rome; corruption of political leaders; too large to keep united
Who was Diocletian? [6:4] emperor who temporarily restored the empire, then divided it into Greek-speaking east & Latin-speaking west to govern more efficiently
What is Constantinople [6:4] city that became the capital when Constantine moved his court from Rome to Byzantium-renamed Constantinople (city of Constantine); this action would shift power and wealth to the eastern empire, and lead to decline of Rome
Who were the Huns? [6:4] fierce Mongol nomads who moved into Eastern Europe forcing Germanic tribes to move into Roman territory
What were the Germanic invasions? [6:4] fleeing the Huns, Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Franks, Angles, Saxons and Vandal tribes invaded Western Roman Empire, overwhelming the defenses and leading to Rome's fall in 476 AD
What is Classical Civilization? [6:5] combination of Hellenistic, Greek and Roman culture that was preserved by the Byzantine Empire in the East after Rome's fall
What were some of the Roman achievements? [6:5] Latin became the language of learning/church; the arch, the dome, and concrete allowed the construction of the Colosseum/other large structures; aqueducts brought water into cities; roads of stone and concrete connected the empire and made travel easier
Created by: wm0397