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Chpt 5 Greece

from warring city-states to the spread of Hellenistic culture

QuestionAnswer
How did Geography influence Greek economic activity? [5:1] ancient Greeks lived around the seas: Aegean, Ionian, and Black Sea; trade by sea was important due to lack of natural resources; colonies were established
How did Geography shape Greek political life? [5:1] Mountainous land made political unity difficult, resulting in the development of small, independent city-states with different types of government
How did the climate shape Greek life? [5:1] moderate temperatures encouraged an outdoor life, for leisure and politics
How did Mycenaean civilization develop? [5:1] Indo-Europeans migrated from the Eurasian steppes to Europe (Greece) around 2000 BC
How did Mycenaean society adopt Minoan culture? [5:1] Mycenaean invasions of the Island of Crete resulted in the diffusion of Minoan writing system, literature, religion and art
What was the Trojan War [5:1] around 1200 BC, war between Mycenaean kings and city of Troy in Anatolia
Who were the Dorians? [5:1] following the collapse of Mycenaean civilization following the Trojan War, a new group moved into the area: the Dorians, during which no written records survive
Who was Homer? [5:1] blind storyteller who composed the epics (narrative poems telling heroic deeds)The Iliad and the Odyssey around 750 BC
What are myths? [5:1] traditional stories about Greek gods that explained the mysteries of nature and human passion; frequent interaction between the gods and humans
What was the polis? [5:2] the Greek city-state, consisting of the city and surrounding lands; by 750, it was the fundamental political unit in Greece
What was the acropolis? [5:2] a fortified hilltop where citizens conducted business
What is a monarchy? [5:2] system of government ruled by a king or queen, in which successors are hereditary
What is an aristocracy? [5:2] system of government where a small group of noble, land-owning families ruled
What is an oligarchy? [5:2] system of government where a few powerful people ruled
What was the phalanx? [5:2] fighting formation of Hoplites (citizen foot soldiers) standing side by side with spears and shield; most powerful fighting force of the ancient world
Who were the Tyrants? [5:2] powerful leaders who appealed to common men's complaints to seize power from nobles
Who were Helots? [5:2] peasants forced to work the land by Spartan conquerors
What was Spartan Society like? [5:2] militaristic society that was the most powerful army in Greece, valuing discipline and strength, but discouraged artistic expression and personal freedoms
What is a Democracy? [5:2] system of government where rule is by the people by direct participation in the political decision making process (citizens only=free adult males)
Who was Draco? [5:2] Greek lawmaker who wrote the first legal code in 621 BC dealing with debt-slavery and property ownership
Who was Solon? [5:2] statesman chosen to reform the law; outlawed debt-slavery, allowed people to sue wrongdoers, and encouraged exports to boost trade
Who was Cleisthenes? [5:2] increased power of the assembly of citizens and created the Council of Five Hundred chosen by lot
What were the Persian Wars? [5:2] wars between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire between 490-479 BC. major battles include Marathon, Thermopylae, and Salamis-Athenian-led victory led to Golden Age of Athens
What is a Direct Democracy? [5:3] system of government where citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Who was Pericles? [5:3] Athenian statesman who ruled for 32 years building up Athens navy and glorifying the city
What is classical art? [5:3] style of art that valued order, balance, and proportion of idealized beauty; sculptures (Athena)and buildings (Parthenon)
Who invented the Drama? [5:3] Greeks invented drama and built theaters; the Tragedy-a hero's downfall, and the Comedy-satires of politicians
What were The Peloponnesian Wars? [5:3] 27 year war between Athens and Sparta won by Sparta; Athens lost its empire and faith in democratic government declined
What was Greek Philosophy? [5:3] "lovers of wisdom" sought truth in everything; two principles were: 1.universe is orderly and governed by laws. 2.man can understand laws using logic and reason
Who were the Sophists? [5:3] philosophers who questioned people's unexamined beliefs about justice and values; no absolute truths-all truth is relative to each person
Who was Socrates? [5:3] critic of Sophists; believed in absolute universal truths but asked followers to question their own values and actions using Q & A (Socratic Method); was condemned for corrupting youth of Athens; committed suicide
Who was Plato? [5:3] student of Socrates; wrote The Republic-vision of perfectly governed society led by educated elites; founded the Academy (900 years)
Who was Aristotle? [5:3] student of Plato at the Academy; invented method of arguing using logic; formed the basis of the scientific method used today; taught Alexander the Great
What was the Battle of Chaeronea? [5:4] Macedonians under Philip II defeated Greek armies ending Greek freedom and Independence in 338 BC
Who was Alexander the Great? [5:4] Macedonian king who would conquer the Persian Empire and control the land from India in the East, Egypt in the South and Greece in the West; spread Hellenistic Culture throughout his empire
What was Hellenism? [5:5] mixture of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian influences as a result of Alexander's conquests
What was importance of Alexandria? [5:5] city in Egypt founded by Alexander that became the center of commerce, learning, and Hellenistic culture
Who was Euclid? [5:5] mathematician in Alexandria who opened school of Geometry and wrote the Elements-book of formulas in math
Who was Archimedes? [5:5] scientist who calculated the value of pi, invented compound pulley, explained the lever, and catapult among many other inventions
What is Stoicism? [5:5] philosophy that believed in a divine power that controlled the universe; encouraged ethical values
Created by: wm0397