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Path 21

Placental and Perinatal Pathology

What vessels are found in the umbilical cord There is one umbilical vein and two umbilical arteries
The fetal membranes are composed of what to parts the innermost amnion and the outer chorion
What is it called when twins coexist in a single gestational sac adn there are no intervening membranes monochorionic monoamniotic placental monozygotic twins
What is it called when there are two gestational sacs separated by membranes consisting only of amnion Monochorionic diamniotic placenta monozygotic twins
what is it called when there are two gestational sacs separated by membranes consisting of both amnion and chorion Dichorionic, diamniotic placenta with monozygotic or dizygotic twins
What is placenta previa premature separation with vaginal bleeding and premature labor (more common in 1st trimester)
Placenta Accreta is limited to? superficial myometrium
Placenta Increta invades? myometrium
Placenta Percreta extends to or through? uterine serosa
Uterine rupture is usually limited to Placenta Accreta, Increta, or Percreta? Percreta
What is a false knot a false knot occurs wehn the umbilical vessels have a circuitous course causing the umbilical cord to bunch up
What is a true knot defined as a knot that when pulled tight can restrict fetal blood flow
What is a velamentous insertion? when the ocrd inserts into the fetal membranes rather than onto the placental disc
What are amniotic bands strips of amnion that can wrap around fetal structures causing a disruption of normal development
Define Pregnancy Induced Hypertension The blood pressure of a pregnant woman who was previously normotensive rises to 140/90 mm Hg or greater after 20 weeks gestation
What is preeclampsia PIH plus proteinuria
What is HELLP syndrome PIH with the triald of hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes, and Low Platelets
What is Eclampsia Preeclampsia plus seizures or coma
What is Placental Abruption placenta prematurely separates from the underlying muscular wall of the uterus (painful bleeding vs painles with placenta previa)
What causes a partial mole A partial mole results when an egg is fertilized by a single sperm, which undergoes reduplication or by dispermy
What causes a complete mole an empty egg is fertilized by a single sperm which undergoes reduplication or by dispermy
What does APGAR stand for? Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration
What is a normal APGAR greater than 7
Prematurity is when babies are born before ? 37 weeks
what is extreme prematurity When babies are born before 28 weeks
What is considered a low birth weight <2500 gm
What is considered a very low birth weight <1500 gm
What is considered an extremely low birth weight <1000 gm
What is another term used to describe RDS hyaline membrane disease
What is the underlying cause of RDS in premature infants Surfactant deficiency
When do the type II pneumocytes start making surfactant at 24-28 wks
What is the most vulnerable area for Intraventricular Hemorrhage Subependymal germinal matrix
What is Fetal Hydrops a state of profound fetal edema with excessive fluid in the pleural, pericardia, and abdominal spaces as well as subcutaneous tissue
What are the two main types of Hydrops Immune and Non-Immune
What is placental chorangioma benign vascular tumor of the fetal vessels of the placenta
Created by: UVAPATH1



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