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Chpt 1 pre-history

peopling of the world

first hominids [1:1] appeared in Africa approximately 4,000,000 BC
Paleolithic Age [1:1] the "old stone age" lasted from 2.5 million to 8000 BC; stone chopping tools used
Neolithic Age [1:1] "new stone age" period between 8000 - 3000 BC; pottery, crops, and domestication of animals
artifacts [1:1] remains such as bones, jewelry, tools, and man-made objects that hint at how people lived
culture [1:1] people group's unique way of life: language, religion, art, behavior, relationships, institutions, technology
Mary Leakey [1:1] archaeologist who discovered footprints in 1978 in Tanzania of australopithecines (hominids that walked upright)
"Lucy" [1:1] name given to remains of female hominid found in Ethiopia; at 3.5 million years old, oldest known to date
technology [1:1] ways in which people have used knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet their needs
Homo Erectus [1:1] "upright man"; hominid believed to be the fist to use technology such as sophisticated digging tools and fire-to cook, hunt, protect, and keep warm
Homo Sapiens [1:1] species name for modern humans; believed to be descendant of Homo Erectus
Cro-Magnons [1:1] skeletal remains identical to modern humans, language skills allowed them to plan hunts;more successful than Neanderthals
Nomadic [1:2] people who wander from place to place; no permanent settlements
hunter-gatherers [1:2] nomadic groups who searched for food and hunted in groups
Neolithic Revolution [1:2] the agriculture revolution around 8000 BC that transformed people from hunter-gatherers to farmers, leading to development of settlements
slash-and-burn [1:2] farming practice in which trees and grasses are burned to clear a field for farming,using ashes to fertilize the soil
domestication (of animals) [1:2] hunter's expert knowledge of animals helped them tame dogs, horses, pigs, and goats
farming develops worldwide [1:2] in Africa: Nile River valley (wheat & barley); in China: the Huang He valley (millet & rice); in the Americas: Mexico & Peru (maize & tomatoes)
Catal Huyuk [1:2] one of the earliest settlements located in modern-day Turkey, home to 6000 residents
shrines [1:2] buildings where sacred relics are kept; early settlements contained shrines to mother-goddess
disadvantages of settlements [1:2] villages faced dangers of fires, floods, drought; diseases spread quickly; wealth attracted nomadic raiders
villages grow into cities [1:3] invention of tools such as hoes, sickles, and stick plows made farming easier, resulting in larger harvests that supported larger populations
economic changes of settlement [1:3] building of irrigation systems; food surpluses free villagers to pursue non-farming work (crafts); traders profit from exchange of goods, aided by the invention of the wheel and the sail
social changes of settlement [1:3] complex economy requires cooperation of many people; social classes develop as work is specialized; religion gets more organized as spiritual values become ritualized traditions
civilization [1:3] complex culture with 5 characteristics: advanced cities, specialized workers (artisans), complex institutions of government/religion, record keeping, and advanced technology
scribes [1:3] professional record keepers who invented a system of writing in ancient Sumeria called Cuneiform
Cuneiform [1:3] means "wedge-shaped"; a system of writing in which a stylus(sharpened reed with wedge-shaped point) is pressed into moist clay tablets to create symbols, then baked in the sun to dry
Bronze Age [1:3] period beginning 3500 BC when Sumerian metalworkers began creating bronze spearheads and other tools by mixing copper with tin
Ur [1:3] one of the oldest advanced civilizations, located on the banks of the Euphrates River in modern-day Iraq
bazaar [1:3] market place located on a broad avenue
barter [1:3] system of trading goods and services without money
ziggurat [1:3] tiered pyramid-like structure found in ancient temples where priests offered sacrifices and performed rituals to the gods that watched over the city; means "mountain of god"
Created by: wm0397