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chapter 13: WH

from the fall of Rome to feudalism in W. Europe

What were the middle ages? [13:1] period between 500 and 1500 AD when new institutions arose in Europe to replace the fallen Roman Empire
What are dialects? [13:1] new languages that evolved from Latin mixing with the every-day speech of people in different regions (Spanish, French, Italian)
Who was Clovis? [13:1] frankish king who converted his germanic tribe to Christianity
What are monasteries? [13:1] religuous communities of monks which became the learning centers of W.Europe during the medieval period
Who was Gregory I? [13:1] pope who expanded the papal power from religious leader into secular matters-worldly politics
Who was Charles Martel? [13:1] aka "Charles the Hammer", stopped the Muslim expansion into Europe at the Battle of Tours in 732 AD
Who was Charlemagne? [13:1] Frankish king who expanded the empire reuniting Western Europe and spreading Christianity; crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III
What was the Treaty of Verdun? [13:1] the division of Charlemagne's empire into 3 kingdoms in 843 as his sons fought for control
Who were the Lords? [13:2] large landholders in feudal society who granted fiefs to their vassals in exchange for loyalty and military support
What was a fief? [13:2] a land grant from a lord in which the vassal receiving it promised loyalty and services
Who were the serfs? [13:2] peasants who were born and tied down to the land they were expected to work; could be bought or sold by their lords
What is a manor? [13:2] a self-contained community where a lord and his vassals lived and worked
What is a tithe? [13:2] religious tax payed to the church, equaling 10 percent
What was chivalry? [13:3] complex set of ideals that demanded knights serve lord faithfully, fight bravely, respect women and defend the poor
Who were troubadours? [13:3] traveling poets and musicians who recited songs and poems of romantic love
What are sacraments? [13:4] religous ceremonies such as baptism, marriage, and communion
What is canon law? [13:4] the law of the church that governed everyday life
What was excommunication? [13:4] penalty imposed by popes on those it considered heretics that denied them salvation
What is an interdiction? [13:4] penalty imposed by popes on a region, in which no sacraments would be performed until repentance by the governing lord
What was the act of lay investiture? [13:4] ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials; a major issue between popes and rulers
What was the Concordat of Worms? [13:4] in 1122, the church and the emperor reached a temporary compromise on the issue of lay investiture in which the pope appointed bishops, but the emperor could veto his choice
Who was Pepin the Short? [13:1] agreed to fight Lombardy in Italy in exchange for Pope anointing him "king by the grace of God", beginning the Carolingian Dynasty
Who were the Franks? [13:1] name given to the Germanic people of Gaul who would form modern France; in medieval times, Muslims considered all westerners as Franks
What was the Carolingian Dynasty? [13:1] the period of Frankish Empire rule from 751 - 987, begun by Pepin the Short, that reunited most of the old Western Roman Empire
Why did the German States remain separate and not united? [13:4] German kings Otto the Great and Frederick I (Barbarossa), waged constant war against rich Italian cities instead of building royal power in Germany; German kings were elected by German princes
What was the Holy Roman Empire? [13:1] German-Italian empire created by Otto I (the Great) with the crowning by the pope in 962
What were the Effects of Germanic Invasions on Western Europe? [13:1] disruption of trade, abandonment of cities, population shifts to rural areas, decline in Learning (use of Latin)
How did the Concepts of Government change with the Germanic Invasions? [13:1] Germanic society was based on loyalty to family, not citizenship; based on small communities, not cities; loyalty to local lord, not a state; governed by unwritten traditions, not written laws
What 3 events led to changes in the government, economy, and culture of Western Europe? [13:1] disruption of trade, downfall of cities, and population shifts from towns to rural manors
Who was Benedict? [13:1] an Italian monk who wrote the rules for life in the monasteries
In 700 AD, what was the title of the most powerful official in the Frankish Kingdom? [13:1] the major domo, or mayor of the palace had charge of the royal household and commanded the army and made policy
Who were the most feared invaders of all? [13:2] The Vikings from Scandinavia
How were the Magyars different from other invaders? [13:2] They did not settle conquered land, instead they attacked isolated villages and monasteries and captured people to sell as slaves
Who were knights? [13:2] they were mounted warriors who pledged to defend their lord's land in exchange for fiefs
What is a trebuchet? [13:3] a medieval weapon of war used to fling large objects like a slingshot
What was the Song of Roland about? [13:3] an epic poem that told of the heroic deeds of French soldiers battling the Muslims during the reign of Charlemagne
Who was Otto I? [13:4] the most effective ruler of medieval Germany, who tried to revive Charlemagne's empire as the Holy Roman Empire
As Otto I and his successors expanded the Holy Roman Empire, what did popes come to fear? the political power that German emperors held over Italy
What action in 1075 led to German emperor Henry IV calling Pope Gregory VII a "false monk" and being excommunicated? [13:4] Church officials felt bishops should not be under the power of any king, so the pope banned the practice of "lay investiture"
Who was the German emperor nicknamed "Barbarossa" for his red beard? [13:4] Frederick I, whose constant invasions of Italy led to his enemies joining together to form an alliance called the Lombard League
Created by: wm0397