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Chapter 14 W. Europe

from feudalism to nations

What was simony? [ch 14:1] corrupt practice of bishops who sold church positions for money
What was lay investiture? [ch 14:1] practice of kings appointing church bishops of their choosing instead of the clergy
What were problems plaguing the church in medieval times? [ch 14:1] 1. priests married against church rules 2. simony 3. lay investiture
What was the Cluny Monastery(France)? [ch 14:1] site of a Benedictine monastery that influenced Pope Gregory VII to reform the church
What is canon law? [ch 14:1] the law of the church that regulated marriage, divorce, and inheritance
Who was St. Francis of Assisi? [ch 14:1] son of wealthy merchant who gave up riches to found the Franciscan order of friars who preached from town to town in vows of poverty
What is Gothic Art? [ch 14:1] medieval style of painting and architecture; the name comes from Germanic tribe called the Goths; building style was high, vaulted ceilings with large stained glass windows & statues of gargoyles
Who was Pope Urban II? [ch 14:1] in 1093, he issued appeal to European Lords for a "holy war"-Crusade- to regain the Holy Lands in Palestine from Muslim rule
What is a Crusade? [ch 14:1] a holy war fought to reclaim holy lands
What factors led to a "Crusading Spirit?" kings wanted to get rid of troublesome knights, the church promised heaven to those who died, younger sons wanted glory, merchants wanted control of trade routes
Who was Saladin? [ch 14:1] Muslim leader who recaptured Jerusalem from the crusaders; he made peace with Richard the Lion-Hearted allowing christian pilgrims
What was the Reconquista? [ch 14:1] long effort to drive the Moors (Muslims) out of Spain; Jews were also expelled in 1492
What was the Inquisition? [ch 14:1] tribunals held by the church to suppress heretics- people whose beliefs differed from the church- in order to consolidate power
What were some effects of the crusades? [ch 14:1] power of Byzantine Empire, pope, and feudal lords declines, Kings gain power; religious intolerance grows; trade grows between Europe and Middle East/Asia; new technologies and classics of Greece spread to Europe
What was the three field system? [ch 14:2] farmers planted spring & winter crops to use 2/3 of land per year instead of only 1/2
What is a guild? [ch 14:2] association of people who worked the same craft (similar to union); studied as apprentice, then worked as a journeyman first
What is usury? [ch 14:2] practice of lending money with interest; not allowed for Christians to charge fellow Christians, so borrowers turned to Jewish bankers
Who were burghers? [ch 14:2] town-dwellers who gained wealth as trade increased and cities grew
What is vernacular? [ch 14:2] the language of everyday people that became more popular among writers as Latin declined in usage
Who was Geoffrey Chaucer? [ch 14:2] wrote "the Canterbury Tales" about medieval life
Who was Thomas Aquinas? [ch 14:2] scholastic monk who combined ancient Greek thought with Christian faith in Summa Theologica
Who was William the Conqueror? [14:3] Norman(French) invader who won the battle for England as his property and brought latin culture to mix with anglo-saxon culture
Who was Eleanor of Aquitaine? [14:3] wife of two kings and mother of three more including Richard the Lionhearted and John
What was the Magna Carta? [14:3] document King John was forced by nobles to sign guaranteeing political rights such as representation and jury trial, ending the concept of absolute monarchy in England
What was The Great Schism? [14:4] situation in which two competing popes assumed the papacy, one in Avignon, one in Rome; it weakened the power of the papacy
Who was John Wycliffe? [14:4] English professor who taught the Bible, not the Pope, was final authority for Christians; had english version printed
Who was Jan Hus? [14:4] professor in Bohemia who preached Wycliffe's message and was burned at the stake as a heretic
What was the Bubonic Plague? [14:4] deadly disease that spread from fleas of infected rats from Asia to Europe, wiping out 30% of population
What were the Effects of the Plague? [14:4] manoral system collapsed, town population dropped, trade declined, prices rose, and the church lost prestige when prayers failed to stop the death
What were the Hundred Years War? [14:4] the on and off fighting between England and France over control of France between 1337-1453
What was the Battle of Crecy? [14:4] English victory in which longbowmen defeated larger army of French knights, signaling the end of feudal type warfare
Who was Joan of Arc? [14:4] French peasant who heard voices from God instructing her to drive the English out of France; led Charles to be crowned king but was captured and burned at the stake by English
What were some Effects of the Hundred Years War? [14:4] the Age of Faith and Chivalry ended,with the church and feudal lords weakened, and the rise of Nations and powerful monarchs controlling large paid armies becoming dominant in Europe
Created by: wm0397