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AP Euro 2.5 Chapters

Industrial Revolution, Restoration of Europe, Karl Marx, and Nationalism

He held a pessimistic view that the increase in population would outgrow the increase in the food supply. Thomas Malthus
What did Malthus want the poor to do? marry later in life to control population growth
What was the "Iron Law of Wages?" Population growth prevents wages from rising above the subsistence level. It just barely keeps people from starving.
Who supported the "Iron Law of Wages?" David Ricardo
What is laissez-faire? a "hands off" form of government
What was the "invisible hand" role of government? government only gets involved to make sure people follow the law but competition regulates the market
Who proposed the "invisible hand" role of government? Adam Smith
Seed drill (inventor) Jethro Tull
Seed drill (year) 1701
Seed drill (description) churned up soil to place seeds which increased the production rate
flying shuttle (inventor) John Kay
flying shuttle (year) 1733
flying shuttle (description) sped up weaving process and increased production by letting an individual weave much wider fabrics
water frame (inventor) Richard Arkwright
water frame (year) 1771
water frame (description) water-powered spinning machine
power loom (inventor) Edmund Cartwright
power loom (year) 1785
power loom (description) a mechanised loom that increased weaving production
"The Rocket" (inventor) George Stephenson
"The Rocket" (year) 1814
"The Rocket" (description) steam-powered locomotive
What invention did James Watt improve and adapt for use in the textile industry? steam engine
Who were the Luddites? a social movement in England who destroyed machines in factories because they thought the machines were taking their jobs
What industry were the Luddites associated with? textile
What is the difference between the cottage industry and the factory system? cottage industry - worked at home, whole family, no set laws factory system - long hours, punished if rules were broken, strict
Subdivision of common land for individual ownership in England was known as the ______. enclosure movement
What nation did the Industrial Revolution begin in? Great Britain
What time period was the Industrial Revolution? 1780-1850
Describe the components of the 1st Industrial Revolution. centered around iron, steam technology, and textile production
Describe the components of the 2nd Industrial Revolution. steel, railroads, electricity, and chemicals
List the 4 factors that contributed to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. agricultural revolution, enclosure movement, new technology, and cottage industry
Describe the agricultural revolution. 15th-19th century when productivity increased and food was more readily available
Describe the enclosure movement. division or consolidation of communal land for personal owning
Describe the new technology as a precursor to the industrial revolution. Farmers were able to use new tools, and production was changed.
Describe the cottage industry. small industry at home by the whole family with their own equipment
What were the main reasons for an increase in population? more food=more babies and tenant farmers from land from the enclosure movement lost their land and moved into cities to find jobs
What impact did the increase in population have on urban cities? It caused overcrowding, new developments, availability for factories, faster production, and a greater demand for jobs.
What two types of transportation were developed during the Industrial Revolution? steam train, and steam boat
What year was the Congress of Vienna? 1814
What were the 3 goals of the Congress of Vienna boundaries of countries, who would rule, and the future of international relations
List the 5 major nations involved in the Congress of Vienna? Russia, Prussia, Britain, France, and Austria
Russia (CofV) Tsar Alexander I
Prussia (CofV) King Frederick William III
Britain (CofV) Viscount Castlereagh
France (CofV) Charles Talleyrand
Austria (CofV) Prince Klemens von Metternich
What nations were part of the Quadruple Alliance? Russia, Prussia, Britain, and Austria
He was an Austrian diplomat (1809-1848), the principle negotiator and dominant member of the Congress of Vienna and helped to shape the post-Napoleonic Europe. Metternich
What was the purpose of the Holy Alliance? used to repress liberal and revolutionary movements
Who proposed the Holy Alliance? Tsar Alexander I
What did other European leaders think of the Holy Alliance? "a high sounding nothing" bringing religion into it doesn't mean it would work
Describe the concept of Dual Revolution. economic and political changes that reinforced eachother French and industrial revolution
What does Eric Hobsbawn mean by "the long 19th century?" lots of changes in one century
Describe reactionary conservatism. extreme conservatism or rightism (anti-liberal)
What was Romanticism a reaction to? classicism and the Enlightenment
What are the ideals of Romanticism? emotional, intense, spontaneous, and fascinated by nature
What nations experienced revolutions in the 1820s? Portugal, Spain, Sardinia, and Greece
What nations experienced revolutions in the 1830s? France, Belgium, Poland, and Italy
Why did the Revolutions of 1848 fail? lack of unification and orginization within and outside of countries moderate liberal middle class feared radical workers, so there was no unity
What book did Karl Marx write? Communist Manifesto
Who did Karl Marx write with? Fredreich Engels
Define communism. a final stage of society in Marxian theory in which the state has withered away and economic goods are distributed equally
What group did Marx believe was oppressed by Capitalism? proletariat
1st stage of history primitive
2nd stage of history slave owning
3rd stage of history feudal
4th stage of history capitalist
5th stage of history communist
Explain surplus value. difference between a worker's wage and the price of a good or service produced by that worker
Who benifitted more from profits: workers or capitalists? captialists
What was the role of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat? has control of the government and ruling
Why did conflict exist (D of P)? the rulers wanted to stay in power and not let the workers take over
How should the proletariat gain control? revolution
In socialism, how should wealth be distributed? equally
Austrian Diplomat Klemens von Metternich
one of the most significant political figures in German history since Martin Luther Otto von Bismarck
Prussian minister Otto von Bismarck
Prussian and empirical chancellor (1862-1890) Otto von Bismarck
utilized realpolitik to unify Germany Otto von Bismarck
nicknamed the “Iron Chancellor” Otto von Bismarck
at best a conservative, at worst a reactionary Klemens von Metternich
principal negotiator and dominant member of the Congress of Vienna Klemens von Metternich
supported the restoration of the monarchy Klemens von Metternich
stifled liberalism and nationalism Klemens von Metternich
1848 - a point in history where history failed to turn Klemens von Metternich
King of Prussia 1861-1868 Wilhelm I
First emperor of Germany 1871-1888 Wilhelm I
Hohenzollern appointed Bismarck to control the Landtag (Prussian Parliament raise taxes to build up the army – rise of Germany as a European Power Wilhelm I
last king of the Papal States Pope Pius IX
initially liberal, turned conservative after revolutions of 1848 in France, Italy, and Germany Pope Pius IX
the assassination of his Minister of the Interior Pope Pius IX
became a “prisoner of the Vatican” in 1870 after Rome joined Italian Unification Pope Pius IX
1869 First Vatican Council which defined papal infallibility Pope Pius IX
denounced the secular nature of society Pope Pius IX
President of the Second Republic 1848-1852 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Emperor Napoleon III 1852-1870 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
France plays a pivotal role in the unification of Italy and Germany Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
abdicates the throne after the loss of Prussia during the France-Prussian War 1870 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
lost the territory of Alsace-Lorraine Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Last king of Prussia Wilhelm II
Last emperor Wilhelm II
inherited the throne at the age of 29 Wilhelm II
bombastic personality Wilhelm II
dismissed Bismarck “dropping of the pilot” 1890 Wilhelm II
favored imperialism rapid expanision for Germany’s “place in the sun” Wilhelm II
build up of naval forces Wilhelm II
militarism Wilhelm II
Welt politik Wilhelm II
Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) conflict between France and Prussia; signified the rise of Prussian militarism and imperialism; provoked by Bismarck; war and nationalism used as a tool to unify Germany; Hall of Mirrors Jan 18, 1871 - Wilhelm I crowned emperor
Treaty of Frankfurt harsh treatment of France after Franco-Prussian War; 1 billion francs over a 3 year period, and give up the territory of Alsace -Lorraine Papal states no longer protected by Napoleon III
Austro-Prussian War (1866) - 7 week war Prussians won with Bismark to unify northern German states Austro-Hungarian Monarchy recognized excluded Austria from Prussian/German affairs Treaty of Prague
Danish War 1864 second war of Schleswig (Danish fief) first step in Bismarck's German Empire military conflict between Prussia, Austria vs. Denmark
Treaty of Vienna Danish War provides Schleswig annexed by Austria, and Holstein by Prussia
Crimean War (1853-56) Russia vs. Ottoman Empire, Britain, France, and Sardinia Ottoman empire declining Russia expands towards Black Sea Cavour and Sardinia get involved to hopefully raise the Italian question
Treaty of Paris Crimean War Russia defeated marks a turning point in Russian history concert of Europe - the idea great powers should work together was shattered
Nationalism Identify defined by connections with nation; loyalty or pride to a nation; both created and threatened nations (especially Austria-Hungary)
Liberalism Individual natural rights Constitutions, limited political authority, parliamentary bodies, voting rights, economic rights
Conservatism Status quo; aristocracy (especially Metternich) felt threatened by liberalism and nationalism, so they tried to preserve their privileges
Junkers Landed aristocracy of Prussia Hohenzollern - controlled military and rose in social and political influence
realpolitik " power politics" Neo-Machiavellian "end justifies means" Follow own or nations interests
"Blood and iron" Questions of day not decided by speeches and majority but by blood and iron Bismarck before the Landtag justifying the increase in taxes and to build up military
Magyars Ethnic group Largest in Hapsburg Empire Most influential in establishment of nationalism in Hapsburg Empire
Red shirts Comicie rosse Volunteer followers of Guiseppe Garibaldi Expedition of the thousand
"Sick man of Europe" Ottoman Empire under Nicholas I Empire declining due to financial troubles, political corruption Nationalism within Present Europe and Turks who revolted against Sultan Empire lasted 500 years
Created by: spschoolstudy