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Cultural Final

QuestionAnswer
Gender Roles that are culturally assigned to genders.
Sex Biologically assigned.
Transgender People who don't feel that their assigned gender fits them well.
Two Spirit People Cheyenne Native Americans of the Great Plains. Take on women role. Taken as second wife.Women are considered lesbians.
Xaniths In Oman. Males considering themselves women. Wear inbetween clothing.If marry & has intercourse with bride, then he is a man. Prostitution.
Sexual Dimorphism Different in size and appearance. Females shorter. Males taller. Females more fat. Males more muscle.
Gender role Cultural expectation.
Gender enculturaluration When an individual learns their gender role through observations or being taught.
Strength Theory Greater strength of males.Quick burst of energy. They do the heavier jobs.
Compatibility with child care theory Women's tasks compatible with child care. Do not place children in danger.
economy of effort theory Advantageous for one gender to perform tasks that are physically located near each other.
Expendability theory The loss of men is less disadvantageous re-productively than the loss of women.
Sexual Divisions of Labor Males: Hunt, lumber & specialize. Females: Gather, prepare and cook food, care for children.
Primary Subsistence activities gathering, hunting, fishing, herding, farming
Secondary subsistence activities Processing and preparation of food
Gender Stratification Men more political leadership. Men more warfare. Women work around home. Sexual limitations on women.
Cross cousins Children of siblings of the opposite sex. Father's sister's children. Mother's brother's children.
parallel cousins Children of siblings of the same sex. Father's brother's children. Mother's sister's children.
Consanguines Related by blood.
Affines Related by marginal ties.
Na of China No marriage practiced. Group raised children. Men visit women in the night.
Nadi of Kenya's "female husbands" Female takes husband role. Marries woman. Finds a man to impregnate woman. Has a son to carry on lineage and property.
Monogamy Marriage between only one spouse.
Polygyny One man marries multiple women. Dependency of resources. Very reproductive successful. Economic benefits.Share responsibilities between wives. Multiple women can gang up against man if he does something wrong.If less men than women: sex ratio imbalance.
Polyandry One woman marries multiple men. Often in Himalayas. When there's not enough resources to share among men, men share 1 woman. Not enough women to marry.
Patrilocal Couples live with husband's parents.
Matrilocal Couples live with wife's parents. EX:Hopi or Iroquois tribes.
Neolocal Married couple lives separately from either parents.
Bilateral View mother's and father's relatives equally. Often in complex political or western societies. Kinship is traced equally through both bloodlines.
Endogamy Marry within ones same group or caste.
exogamy Marry outside one's kin group or community.
marriage alliance Families arrange marriage. To form some social or economic ties that is very important between two families. Practiced in India, Japan and Europe.
Dowry Goods or money from the bride's family to the bride, the groom or the couple. Used to ensure the man will support the wife and children. Often land is given as dowry.
Bridewealth Bride price. A gift of money or goods from the groom or his kin to the bride's kin. Secures the marriage and helps avoid divorce. Related to low status of women. Practiced in Africa and Oceania.
Incest taboo theories Childhood familiarity theory. Family disruption theory (rivalry within family). Cooperation theory (encourage outside breeding.community ties. Work with other families). Inbreeding theory (DNA damage).
Ascribed Status Determined for people at birth based on sex, social class, religion,race etc.
Achieved Status Qualities people acquire during their lifetime.
Age-sets Non voluntary.The term for a group of people of similar age and the same sex who move through some or all of life's stages together.
Unisex An association that restricts its membership to one sex.
Ethnic associations Voluntary. Groups basing their membership off ethnicity.Giving a sense of community. EX: Chinatown.
Four main characteristics of associations 1. Formal and institutionalized. 2. Some form of exclusions. 3.Pride and sense of belonging and rites of passage. 4. Common purpose.
Regional associations Voluntary.Bring together migrants from a common Geographic background. Used for political activism or mutual aid.
Patrilineal Blood line and lineage through males.
Matrilineal Blood line and lineage through females.
Pray The Devil Back To Hell Film Women come together to get Charles Taylor out and to get the rebels to stop fighting.
Bands Egalitarian. No formal political authority.Foraging. Small groups. Self sufficient. One local group. Independent. Share resources. People with Influence and prestige. EX: Inuit.
Tribes People with influence and prestige.Bigger and multilocal. Multiple villages. Only temporarily come together for defense. Pastoralists or food producers. EX: Yannomamo, Chayenne, Kuelka.
Chiefdom Multilocal groups are permanently together and depend on each other to acquire resources. Ranked society, some what stratified. Chief is born into position. Very large. Agricultural. Polynesian, Hawaii, Tahiti. Chief has a lot of prestige.
State Very large. Hierarchical. Bureaucracy.Formal political organization. Highly stratified. Legitimate use of force and control.Formal authority.
Peaceful means of conflict resolutions. If there's no ruler, then you control the group with social norms, shaming or gossip.
Avoidance Stop talking or defriend someone.
Negotiations Talk it out with someone, one on one. Or a Shaman becomes the person inbetween or listens for negotiations.
Community action Everyone decides together to make a decision.
Religion A belief in the supernatural with practices that influence the supernatural.
Supernatural Anything that exists beyond observational or natural world.
monothesism 1 god. Human-like
polythesism more than 1 god
Ghosts once to be human. Malevolent.
Spirits Once to be human. Ancestors.
mana Supernatural force. Energy. Power. Positive. Can gain or lose itEX: Hawaiian Chiefs
Rituals
Magic
Witchcraft Serves an intellectual purpose, to blame something on someone.
Sorcery
Theories of religious belief. psychological theory: eases anxiety and uncertainty. Intellectual theory: providing an explanation. Sociological theory:
Pray The Devil Back To Hell Film Women come together to get Charles Taylor out and to get the rebels to stop fighting.
Bands Egalitarian. No formal political authority.Foraging. Small groups. Self sufficient. One local group. Independent. Share resources. People with Influence and prestige. EX: Inuit.
Tribes People with influence and prestige.Bigger and multilocal. Multiple villages. Only temporarily come together for defense. Pastoralists or food producers. EX: Yannomamo, Chayenne, Kuelka.
Chiefdom Multilocal groups are permanently together and depend on each other to acquire resources. Ranked society, some what stratified. Chief is born into position. Very large. Agricultural. Polynesian, Hawaii, Tahiti. Chief has a lot of prestige.
State Very large. Hierarchical. Bureaucracy.Formal political organization. Highly stratified. Legitimate use of force and control.Formal authority.
Peaceful means of conflict resolutions. If there's no ruler, then you control the group with social norms, shaming or gossip.
Avoidance Stop talking or defriend someone.
Negotiations Talk it out with someone, one on one. Or a Shaman becomes the person inbetween or listens for negotiations.
Community action Everyone decides together to make a decision.
Religion A belief in the supernatural with practices that influence the supernatural.
Supernatural Anything that exists beyond observational or natural world.
monothesism 1 god. Human-like
polythesism more than 1 god
Ghosts once to be human. Malevolent.
Spirits Once to be human. Ancestors.
mana Supernatural force. Energy. Power. Positive. Can gain or lose itEX: Hawaiian Chiefs
Rituals Patterned performances meant to influence to interact with a supernatural being or force.
Magic Perform an act or ritual in order to compel a supernatural force to act on your behalf. EX: Luck, Karma.
Witchcraft Serves an intellectual purpose, to blame something on someone.
Sorcery They perform a ritual or action in order to create an effect upon you.
Theories of religious belief. psychological theory: eases anxiety and uncertainty. Intellectual theory: providing an explanation. Sociological theory: Bring people together or give people a purpose.
Ethic of applied anthropology Indigenous population come first and no harm should come to them. Must be very honest. Get their feedback. Incorporate the views, beliefs and opinions of the indigenous people into their research.
Why are some planned change programs unsuccessful? 1. Social resistance (If society doesn't agree then it's harder to change it.) 2. If leaders don't agree. 3. Resisting the government. 4. Anthropologists are brought too late.
Cultural resource management. Archaeological. Preservation of archaeological sites with historical significance.
Western Medicine Physician, doctor, nurse.
Non-western medicine of illness shamninism Shamans.
Cultural bound systems Illness that is distinct to a particular culture. Norms.
universal mental illnesses Exist in all cultures with different names, depressions etc.
Yanonmamo Film Indigenous people receiving harmful affects for outsiders.
Created by: Jlazo198