Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Ch10NervousSystemTB

QuestionAnswer
Function(s) of the Cerebrum Thinking, Personality, Sensations, Movements, Memory
Function(s) of the Thalamus Relay Station ("Triage Center") for Sensory Impulses; Control of Awareness and Consciousness
Function(s) of the Hypothalamus Body Temperature, Sleep, Appetite, Emotions, Control of the Pituitary Gland
Function(s) of the Cerebellum Coordination of Voluntary Movements and Balance
Function(s) of the Pons Connection of Nerves (to the Eyes and Face)
Function(s) of the Medulla Oblongata Nerve Fibers Cross Over, Left to Right and Right to Left; Contains Centers to Regulate Heart, Blood Vessels, and Respiratory System
Acetylcholine Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells.
Afferent Nerve Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerve). Afferent comes from af- (a form of ad-, meaning toward) and -ferent (meaning carrying).
Arachnoid Membrane Middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord. The Greek "arachne" means spider.
Astrocyte Type of glial (neuroglial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries.
Autonomic Nervous System Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs.
Axon Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
Blood-Brain Barrier Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
Brainstem Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; Includes the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Cauda Equina Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
cell body Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus.
CNS Central Nervous System - Brain and the spinal cord.
cerebellum Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
cerebral cortex Outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; Gray matter of the brain.
CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid - Circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord.
cerebrum Largest part of the brain; Responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory.
cranial nerves Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve).
dendrite Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.
dura mater Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord.
efferent nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; Motor nerve.
ependymal cell Glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
ganglion (plural: ganglia) Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
ganglia (singular: ganglion) Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
glial cell (neuroglial cell) Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses. Examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.
neuroglial cell (glial cell) Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses. Examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.
gyrus (plural: gyri) Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution.
gyri (singular: gyrus) Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution.
hypothalamus Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland
medulla oblongata Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here.
meninges Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
microglial cell Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system (CNS).
motor nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve.
myelin sheath Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons.
nerve Macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses.
neuron Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body.
neurotransmitter Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. Examples of neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin.
oligodendroglial cell Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. Also called oligodendrocyte.
oligodendrocyte Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. Also called oligodendroglial cell.
parasympathetic nerves Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
parenchyma Essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system. The parenchyma of the NS includes the brain, spinal cord, & neurons. Parenchymal cells of the liver are hepatocytes, & parenchymal tissue of the kidney includes the nephrons, where urine is formed.
The parenchyma of the nervous system Includes the brain, spinal cord, & neurons.
hepatocytes Parenchymal cells of the liver.
parenchyma tissue of the kidney Includes the nephrons, where urine is formed.
peripheral nervous system Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves.
pia mater Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.
plexus (plural: plexuses) Large, interlacing network of nerves. Examples are lumbosacral, cervical, and brachial (brachi/o means arm) plexuses.
plexuses (singular: plexus) Large, interlacing network of nerves. Examples are lumbosacral, cervical, and brachial (brachi/o means arm) plexuses.
pons Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain (Lain pons means bridge). It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain.
receptor Organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves. The skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors.
sciatic nerve Nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot. Sciatica is pain or inflammation along the course of the nerve.
sciatica pain or inflammation along the course of the sciatic nerve.
sensory nerve Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve.
spinal nerves Thirty-one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord.
stimulus (plural: stimuli) Agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.
stimuli (singular: stimulus) Agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.
stroma Connective and supporting tissue of an organ. Glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain.
the stromal tissue of the brain Glial cells
sulcus (plural: sulci) Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure.
sulci (singular: sulcus) Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure.
sympathetic nerves Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress.
synapse Space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells. From the Greek 'synapsis,' a point of contact.
thalamus Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum. Latin 'thalamus' means room.
vagus nerve 10th cranial nerve (cranial nerve X); its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus & stomach. Latin vagus means wandering. Unlike the other cranial nerves, it leaves the head & "wanders" in2 the abdominal & thoracic cavities
ventricles of the brain Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid.
cerebell/o cerebellum
cerebellar Pertaining to the cerebellum.
cerebr/o cerebrum
cerebrospinal fluid Fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord and is located within the ventricles of the brain.
cerebral cortex The outer region (gray matter) of the cerebrum.
cortical means pertaining to the cortext or outer area of an organ.
dur/o dura mater
subdural hematoma Collection of blood under t dura mater (outermost layer of t meninges). Results frm t tear'g of veins btwn t dura & arachnoid membranes. Its often t result of blunt trauma, such as frm blows 2 t head n boxers & n elderly patients who've fallen out of bed.
Hematomas Remember: Hematomas are not tumors of blood, but are collections of blood.
epidural hematoma Collection of blood above the dura mater. Occurs between the skull and the dura as the result of a ruptured meningeal artery, usually after a fracture to the skull.
encephal/o brain
encephalitis Inflammation of the brain.
encephalopathy Any disease of the brain.
anencephaly Condition of no brain (congenital anomaly). This is a congenital brain malformation; it is not compatible with life and may be detected with amniocentesis or ultrasonography of the fetus.
intracerebral hematoma Is caused by bleeding directly into brain tissue, such as can occur in the case of uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure).
gli/o glial cells
glioblastoma Tumor (malignant) of glial (neuroglial or supportive) cells in the brain. This is a highly malignant tumor (-blast means immature). Gliomas are tumors of glial (neuroglial) cells.
Gliomas Gliomas are tumors of glial (neuroglial) cells.
-blast immature
lept/o thin, slender
leptomeningeal Pertaining to the pia mater and arachnoid membranes of the meninges.
leptomeninges the pia and the arachnoid membranes. They are known as the leptomeninges because of their thin, delicate structure.
mening/o membranes, meninges
meningi/o membranes, meninges
meningeal pertaining to the meninges.
meningioma tumor of the meninges. slowly growing, benign tumor.
myelomeningocele Hernia of the spinal cord and meninges; associated w/ spina bifida. Neural tube defect caused by failure of the neural tube to close during embryonic development. This abnormality occurs in infants born w/ spina bifida.
my/o muscle
myoneural pertaining to muscle and nerve.
myel/o spinal cord (means bone marrow in other contexts)
myelogram record (x-ray) of the spinal cord.
poliomyelitis inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord. polio- means gray matter. This viral disease affects the gray matter of the spinal cord, leading to paralysis of muscles that rely on the damaged neurons.
polio- means gray matter
neur/o nerve
neuropathy disease of nerves.
polyneuritis inflammation of many (spinal) nerves, causing paralysis, pain, + wasting of muscles. Guillain-Barré syndrome (sequela of certain viral infections w/ paresthesias + muscular weakness) is an example.
Guillain-Barré syndrome (sequela of certain viral infections with paresthesias and muscular weakness) is an example.
pont/o pons
cerebellopontine pertaining to the cerebellum and the pons. the suffix -ine means pertaining to.
-ine means pertaining
radicul/o nerve root (of spinal nerves)
radiculopathy disease of the spinal nerve roots.
radiculitis inflammation of nerve roots. this condition often results in pain and loss of function.
pyel/o renal pelvis of the kidney
py/o pus
thalam/o thalamus
thalamic pertaining to the thalamus.
thec/o sheath (refers to the meninges)
intrathecal injection placement of substances (medicines) into the subarachnoid space. chemicals, such as chemotherapeutic drugs, can be delivered into the subarachnoid space.
vag/o vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve)
vagal pertaining to the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. this cranial nerve has branches to the head and neck, as well as to the chest.
alges/o excessive sensitivity to pain
-algesia excessive sensitivity to pain
analgesia condition of no sensation of pain (usually accompanied by sedation without loss of consciousness).
anesthetics agents that reduce or eliminate sensation.
hypalgesia diminished sensation to pain.
hyperalgesia increased sensitivity to pain.
-algia pain
neuralgia nerve pain
trigeminal neuralgia involves flashes of pain radiating along the course of the trigeminal nerve (fifth cranial nerve).
cephalgia headache (head pain). headaches may result from vasodilation (widening) of blood vessels in tissues surrounding the brain or from tension in the neck and scalp muscles.
vasodilation widening of blood vessels in tissues
caus/o burning
causalgia burning sensation of pain (in the skin); usually following injury to sensory fibers of a peripheral nerve. intense burning pain following injury to a sensory nerve.
comat/o deep sleep (coma)
comatose in a state of coma (profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused; may be due to trauma, disease, or action of ingested toxic substance).
coma a state of unconsciousness from which the patient cannot be aroused.
semicomatose refers to a stupor (unresponsiveness) from which a patient can be aroused.
irreversible coma (brain death) there is complete unresponsitivity to stimuli, no spontaneous breathing or movement, and a flat EEG tracing.
brain death (irreversible coma) there is complete unresponsitivity to stimuli, no spontaneous breathing or movement, and a flat EEG tracing.
esthesi/o feeling, nervous sensation
-esthesia feeling, nervous sensation
anesthesia condition of no nervous sensation. lack of normal sensation (e.g., absence of sense of touch or pain). two common types of regional anesthesia are spinal + epidural (caudal) blocks.
two common types of regional anesthesia spinal and epidural (caudal) blocks
hyperesthesia excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli. a light touch with a pin may provoke increased sensation.
hypesthesia diminished sensitivity to pain.
paresthesia an abnormal sensation such as numbness, tingling, / prickling. par- (fro para-) means abnormal. paresthesias include burn'g, prickl'g, tingl'g sensatns, / numbness. they're the 'pins + needles' feeling, numbness + tingling when an extremity 'falls asleep'
par- (from para-) means abnormal
para- means abnormal
kines/o movement
kinesi/o movement
-kinesia movement
-kinesis movement
-kinetic movement
bradykinesia slowness of movement
hyperkinesis condition of excessive movement (muscular activity). amphetamines (CNS stimulants) are used to treat hyperkinesia in children, but the mechanism of their action is not understood.
dyskinesia involuntary, spasmodic movements. condition marked by involuntary, spasmodic movements.
tardive dyskinesia (occurring late) may develop in people who receive certain antipsychotic drugs for extended periods.
akinetic pertaining to without movement.
-lepsy seizure
epilepsy chronic disorder marked by attacks of brain dysfunction due to excessive firing of nervous impulses.
narcolepsy sudden, uncontrollable episodes of sleep (seizures of sleep). sudden, uncontrollable compulsion to sleep (narc/o = stupor, sleep). amphetamines and stimulant drugs are prescribed to prevent attacks.
lex/o word, phrase
narc/o stupor, sleep
dyslexia disorder of reading, writing, or learning (despite the ability to see and recognize).
-paresis weakness
hemiparesis slight paralysid in either the right or left half of the body.
paresis also is used by itself to mean partial paralysis or weakness of muscles.
-phasia speech
aphasia condition of inability to speak.
motor aphasia (also called Broca or expressive) is present when the patient knows what he/she wants to say but cannot say it.
sensory aphasia the patient articulates (pronounces) words easily but uses them inappropriately. this patient has difficulty understanding written and verbal commands and cannot repeat them.
articulates pronounces
-plegia paralysis (loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body)
paralysis loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body
hemiplegia paralysis in half of the body. results from a stroke or other brain injury. the hemiplegia is contralateral to the brain lesion because motor nerve fibers from the right half of the brain cross to the left side of the body (in the medulla oblongata).
paraplegia paralysis in the lower portion of the body. paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body caused by injury or disease of the spinal cord or cauda equina.
quadriplegia paralysis of all four limbs of the body. quadri- means four. all four extremities are affected. injury is at the cervical level of the spinal cord.
quadri- means four
-praxia action
apraxia inability to carry out familiar purposeful movements (in the absence of paralysis or sensory or motor impairment). movements and behaviors are not purposeful.
motor apraxia a patient cannot use an object or perform a task. motor weakness is not the cause.
-sthenia strength
neurasthenia condition of lack of nerve strength; nervous exhaustion and weakness. nervous exhaustion and fatigue, often following depression.
syncop/o to cut off, cut short
syncopal pertaining to syncope (fainting).
syncope means fainting; sudden and temporary loss of consciousness caused by inadequate flow of blood to the brain. a patient can experience a syncopal episode.
tax/o order, coordination
ataxia no muscular coordination (often caused by cerebellar dysfunction). persistent unsteadiness on the feet can be caused by a disorder involving the cerebellum.
neurologic disorders may be classified in the following categories: congenital; neoplastic(tumors); degenerative, movement, and seizure; traumatic; infectious (meningitis and encephalitis); vascular (stroke)
hydrocephalus abnormal accumulation of fluid (CSF) in the brain. abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles (canals) of the brain.
spina bifida congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts (neural tube defect). spinal cord and meninges may herniate through the vertebral gap.
spina bifida occulta the vertebral defect is covered over with skin and evident only on x-ray or other imaging examination.
spina bifida cystica is a more severe form, with cyst-like protrusions.
meningocele the meninges protrudes to the outside of the body. hernia of the meninges through a defect or space between vertebrae; a form of spina bifida cystica
myelomeningocele (or meningomyelocele) both the spinal cord and meninges protrude.
meningomyelocele (or myelomeningocele) both the spinal cord and meninges protrude.
AD Alzheimer disease - brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration (dementia), personality changes, and impairment of daily functioning.
dementia gradual and progressive mental deterioration
senile plaques microscopic examination of alzheimer disease shows these which result from degeneration of neurons and neurofibrillary tangles (bundles of fibrils in the cytoplasm of a neuron) in the cerebral cortex.
neurofibrillary tangles bundles of fibrils in the cytoplasm of a neuron.
amyloid a protein
ALS (amyitriohic lateral sclerosis) - degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem. Also known as Lou Gehrig disease.
Lou Gehrig disease also called ALS or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
epilepsy chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity.
tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal or ictal events) are characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness, falling down, and then tonic contractions (stiffening of muscles) followed by clonic contractions (twitching and jerking movements of the limbs).
grand mal seizures (tonic-clonic seizures or ictal events) are characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness, falling down, and then tonic contractions (stiffening of muscles) followed by clonic contractions (twitching and jerking movements of the limbs).
ictal events (tonic-clonic seizures or grand mal) are characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness, falling down, and then tonic contractions (stiffening of muscles) followed by clonic contractions (twitching and jerking movements of the limbs).
tonic contractions stiffening of muscles
clonic contractions twitching and jerking movements of the limbs
aura tonic and clonic convulsions are preceded by an aura, which is a peculiar sensation experienced by the affected person before onset of a seizure. dizziness, numbness, + visual or olfactory (sense of smell) disturbances are examples of the aura.
olfactory sense of smell
absence seizures (petit mal seizures) a minor form of seizure consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of the person's surroundings.
petit mal seizures (absence seizures) a minor form of seizure consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of the person's surroundings.
postictal events after seizures, there may be neurologic symptoms such as weakness called postictal events.
temporal lobe epilepsy seizures begin in the temporal lob (on each side of the brain near the ears) of the brain.
complex partial seizure the most common type of seizure. commonly these patients have seizures that cause them to pause in whatever they are doing, become confused, and have memory problems.
huntington disease hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration.
MS multiple sclerosis - destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue
sclerotic hard
demyelination loss of myelin insulation. orevents the conduction of nerve impulses through the axon and causes paresthesias, muscle weakness unsteady gait (manner of walking), and paralysis.
gait manner of walking
MG myasthenia gravis - autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles.
thymectomy is also a method of treatment for myasthenia gravis (MG)
palsy paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function)
cerebral palsy partial paralysis and lack of muscular coordination caused by loss of oxygen (hypoxia) or blood flow to the cerebrum during pregnancy or in the perinatal period.
hypoxia loss of oxygen
bell palsy (or Bell's palsy) is paralysis on one side of the face.
parkinson disease (parkinsonism) degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occurring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement.
palliative relieving symptoms but not curative
tourette syndrome involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds; and inappropriate words
tics twitching of the eyelid and muscles of the face with verbal outbursts
herpes zoster (shingles) viral infection affecting peripheral nerves
shingles (herpes zoster) viral infection affecting peripheral nerves
meningitis inflammation of the meninges; leptomeningitis
pyogenic meningitis meningitis caused by bacteria
aseptic or viral meningitis caused by viruses
photophobia sensitivity to light
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy brain disease and dementia occuring with AIDS.
brain tumor abnormal growth of brain tissue and meninges
gliomas primary brain tumors arise from glial cells
meningiomas primary brain tumors arise from the meninges
cerebral edema swelling
cerebral concussion temporary brain dysfunction (brief loss of consciousness) after injury, usually clearing within 24 hours
cerebral contusion bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head; neurologic deficits persist longer than 24 hours
CVA cerebrovascular accident - disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke. also known as a cerebral infarction. is the result of impaired oxygen supply to the brain.
thrombic blood clot (thrombus) in the arteries leading to the brain, resulting in occlusion (blocking) of the vessel. Type if stroke.
TIAs transient ischemic attacks - short episodes of neurologic dysfunction
embolic an embolus (a dislodged thrombus) travels to cerebral arteries + occludes a small vessel. this type of stroke occurs very suddenly.
thrombus blood clot
embolus a dislodged thrombus (blood clot)
hemorrhagic a blood vessel breaks and bleeding occurs. this type of stroke can be fatal and results from advancing age, atherosclerosis, or high blood pressure, all of which result in degeneration of cerebral blood vessels.
aneurysm weakened area in the vessel wall that balloons and may eventually burst
tPA tissue plasminogen activator - is started within 3 hours after the onset of a stroke
migraine severe, recurring, unilateral, vascular headache
aura prodromal symptoms - peculiar sensations that precede the onset of illness
cerebrospinal fluid analysis samples of CSF are examined
cerebral angiography x-ray imaging
Created by: e_burkes_23