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Rubenstein Ch 1-7

Fall Semester Final Exam Review

Region An area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features
Map A two-dimensional model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it
Cartography The science of map-making
Scale The relationship between a map's distances and the actual distances on Earth
Projection The method of transferring locations on Earth's surface to a map
Toponym The name given to a place on Earth (nickname)
Site The physical character of a place
Situation The location of a place relative to other places (Relative Location)
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) The internationally agreed official time reference for Earth. (Reference time for all points on Earth)
International Date Line The longitude at which one moves forward or backward one day
Functional Region An area organized around a node or focal point. (Nodal region)
Vernacular Region A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
Spatial Association The distribution of one phenomenon is spatially related to the distribution of another
Spatial Analysis Formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties
Spatial Distribution Physical location of geographic phenomena across space
Culture The body of customary beliefs, material traits and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people.
Environmental Determinism Belief that the physical environment causes social development
Possibilism The belief that while environment can limit certain actions of people, it cannot wholly predestined their development.
Density The frequency with which something occurs in space
Arithmetic Density (Population Density) The total number of people divided by total land area
Concentration The extent of a feature's spread over space
Pattern The geometric arrangement of objects in space
Diffusion The process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time
Hearth The place from which an innovation originates
Relocation Diffusion The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
Hierarchical Diffusion The spread of an idea from persons of authority or power to other persons or places
Contagious Diffusion The rapid widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) The total number of of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Crude Death Rate (CDR) The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Distribution The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
Doubling Time The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
Physiological Density The number of people per unit of area or arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
Topography The art or practice of graphic delineation in detail usually on maps or charts of natural and man-made features of a place or region especially in a way to show their relative positions and elevations
Natural Increase Rate (NIR) The percentage groth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) The average number of childern a women will have throughout her childbearing years
Overpopulation The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the encironment to support life at a decent standard of living
Demography The scientific study of population characteristics
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society
Life Expectancy The average number of years an individual can be expected to live
Industrial Revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa
Demographic Transition Model A geographic model that divides a country's development into 4 stages based on its population growth patterns
Population Pyramid A bar graph representing the distirbution of population by age and sex
Dependency Ratio The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force
Sex ratio The number of males per 100 females in the population
Thomas Malthus Theory Population grows faster at a geometric or exponential rate and the food supply increases arithmetically or linearly
Migration Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location
Net Migration The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
Mobility All types of movement form one location to another
Intervening Obstacle An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
Interregional Migration Permanent movement from one region of a country to another
Intraregional Migration Permanent movement within one region of a country
US Migrants 1980s Most from LDCs who were pushed out by poor economic conditions (Mexico, China, India, Taiwan, Philippines, Vietnam, South Korea)
Push Factor Factors that induce people to move out of their present location
Pull Factor Factors tha induce people to move into a new location
Grid Point (Latitude) The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator
Grid Point (Longitude) The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian
Globalization Actions or process that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Animism Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life
Apartheid Laws in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas
Balkanization Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
Brain Drain Large-scale emigration by talented people
Centripetal Force An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
Colony A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent
Compact state A state in which the distance form the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
Counter-urbanization Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
Custom The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act
Dialect A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
Elongated state A state with a long, narrow shape
English Language Branch West Germanic group of the Germanic branch
English Language Family Indo-European family
Ethnic cleansing Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
Ethnic Religion A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated
Ethnicity (Ethnic Identity) Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions
Folk culture Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups
Fragmented state A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
Ghetto During the Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to donate a section of a city in which members of an minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure
Guest Workers Europe Workers who migrated to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe,usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher paying jobs which were low skilled and low status
Habit A repetitive act performed by a particular individual
Language Branch A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago
Language Family A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
Language Group A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammer and vocabulary
Lingua Franca A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
Nation / Nationality A group of people tied to a particular place through legal and cultural tradition (Example: American nationality identifies citizens of USA)
Nation-state A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
Nationalism Loyalty and devotion to a paticular nationality
Popular culture Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
Prorupted State An otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
Race Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor
Racism Belief that the race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race
Graphic Scale Consists of a bar line marked to show distance on Earth's surface
Fractional Scale Shows the numerical ratio between distances on the map and Earth's surface
Globes / Maps Globes accurately represent Earth whereas maps are two dimensional and cause distortion
Ravenstein's Migration Theory Long distance migrants are male and single rather than families with children seeking work
Illegal Immigrants Those entering the United States without the proper documents
Taboo Restriction on behavior imposed by social custom
Centrifugal Force Religious, political, economic and conflict factors that causes disunity in a state
Acculturation Process of adopting only certain customs that will be to their advantage
Unitary State An internal organization of a state that places most of the power in the hands of the central government
State An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
Sovereignty Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
Universalizing religion A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular area
Sovereign State A state which administers its own government, and is not dependent upon, or subject to, another power
Voluntary migration Permanent movement undertaken by choice
Religion Branch A large and fundamental division within a religion
Religion Denomination A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body
Religion Sect A relatively small group that has broken away from an establised denomination
Genocide Murder of entire ethnic group: the systematic killing of all the people from a national, ethnic, or religious group, or an attempt to do this
Distortion Occurs in either distance or space on a map
Arable Land Land suitable for agriculture
Adherents Muslims (Those who surrenders to God)
Created by: Princess301
Popular AP Human Geography sets




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