Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

PBL 6

anatomy of the shoulder, Ligaments and tendon, Inflammatory response, AC distrup

QuestionAnswer
What is the appendicular skeleteon? refers to bones of the upper and lower limbs, and the pectoral and pelvic girdles
What does the upper limb consist of? the arm, the forearm and hand all connected to the axial skeleton by pectoral girdle
Pectoral girdle? is formed by the clavicle and scapula, which lie anteriorly and posteriorly to the ribcage
Scapula A large, flat triangular bone that lies obliquely on the back and side of the thorax
What articulations does the scapula form? Acromio-clavicular joint with the acromial end of the clavicle Glenohumeral joint with the head of the humerus
Acromion The expanded lateral end of the spine of the scapula. It has an oval facet for articulation with the clavicle
Coronoid process A large, finger-like bony spur that projects upwards from the upper-aspect of the neck of scpaula.
What does the coronoid process give attatchment to? Coracobrachials, short head of bicepts, pectoralis minor, coraco-clavicular ligaments.
Glenoid fossa A shallow socket that articulates witht he head of the humerus. Is pear-shaped; its depth is increased by the glenoid labrum, which is attatched to the periphery. Lined with hyaline cartilage for articulation.
Inferior angle The medial and lateral borders of the scapula meet at the inferior angle which overlies the seventh rib; with abduction of the arm it moves around the chest wall.
Infraspinosous fossa A large depression if the dorsal aspect of the scapula, below the spine. It gives attatchment to infraspinatus, one of the four rotator cuff muscles.
Lateral border Thick, runs from the infraglenoid tubercle to the inferior angle.
Medial Border Thin, it runs between the superior and inferior angles.
Neck of the glenoid A constriction between the glenoid and the body of the scapula
Spine Triangular ridge of the bone that crosses the back of the scapula from the acromion to the medial border
Superior angle The junction between the superior and medial borders
Superior borders Thin and sharp, it is separated from the coracoid process by the supraglenoid notch.
Subscapular fossa Slightly ridged fossa on the inner surface of the scapula
Supraspinosous fossa A deep fossa located on the back of the scapula, above the spine.
Subscapular notch A dip in the superior border, just medial to the coracoid process
What two articulations does the scapula form? Acromio-clavicular joint with the acromion of the scapula Sterno clavicular joint with the manubrium of the sternum
Sternal end of scapula The medial end of the clavicle that articulates with the sternum
Acromial end The lateral end of the clavicle that articulates acromion of the scapula
Coroid tubercle Small projection from the posterior edge; gives attatchment to the coroid part of the coraco clavicular
What three articulations does the humerus form? Glenohumeral joint, humeroulnar joint, humeroradial joint
What type of joint is the shoulder? Ball and socket joint
Superior angle The junction between the superior and medial borders
Superior borders Thin and sharp, it is separated from the coracoid process by the supraglenoid notch.
Subscapular fossa Slightly ridged fossa on the inner surface of the scapula
Supraspinosous fossa A deep fossa located on the back of the scapula, above the spine.
Subscapular notch A dip in the superior border, just medial to the coracoid process
What two articulations does the scapula form? Acromio-clavicular joint with the acromion of the scapula Sterno clavicular joint with the manubrium of the sternum
Sternal end of scapula The medial end of the clavicle that articulates with the sternum
Acromial end The lateral end of the clavicle that articulates acromion of the scapula
Coroid tubercle Small projection from the posterior edge; gives attatchment to the coroid part of the coraco clavicular
What three articulations does the humerus form? Glenohumeral joint, humeroulnar joint, humeroradial joint
What type of joint is the shoulder? Ball and socket joint
What are the anatomical components of the shoulder? Articular capsule, Coracohumeral ligament, glenohumeral ligament, glenohumeral ligament, transverse humeral ligament, glenoid labrum, Four bursae: Subscapular, subdeltoid, subacromial, subcoracoid
Muscles that move the pectoral girdle can be classified into two groups based on their location in the thorax. What are these two groups? Anterior and posterior thoracic muscles
What are the anterior thoracic muscles that move the pectoral girdle Subclavius, Pectoralis minor, serratus anterior
Subclavius Small cyclinderical muscle under the clavicle that extends from the clavicle to the first rib. Depresses and moves clavicle anteriorly and stabilises
Pectorallis minor Insertion- Coracoid process of scapula. Abducts scapula and rotates it downwards; elevates third through fifth ribs during forced inhalation
Serratus anterior Large, flat fan shaped muscle between the ribs and scapula. Abducts scapula and rotates it upwards; elevates ribs when scapula stabilised
What are the posterior thoracic muscles? Trapezius, levatator scapulae, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor
Trapezius Flat, largem triangular sheet of muscle extending from the skull to vertebral collumn to pectoral girdle laterally. Elevates scapula, help extend head.
Levatator scapulae Elevatos scapula and rotates it downwards
Rhomboid major and rhomboid minor lies deep to the trapezius, Rhomoid major = T2-T5 Rhomboid minor= C7-T1, elevatos and adducts scaupla and rotates it downwards.
Which AXIAL muscles move the HUMERUS? pectorallis minor, latissimus dorsi
pectorallis minor Adducts and medially rotates arm at shoulder joint; clavicular head flexes arm, and sternal costal head extends the flexed arm to the side of trunk
latissimus dorsi Extends adducts, and medially rotates arm at shoulder joint, drwas arm inferiorly and posteriorly
What are the SCAPULAR muscles that move the humerus? Deltoid, Subscapularis, Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, teres major, coracobrachials
Inflammation can be? Acute or chronic
Acute inflammation Is a rapid in onset and of short duration, lasting from a few minutes to as long as a few days, and is characteriszed by fluid and plasma proteins.
Chronic inflammation Lasts longer than acute, more insidious, typified by influx of lymphocytes+macrophages, Vascular proliferation, scarring.
what are the five characteristic signs of inflammation? Redness, Heat, pain and swelling, loss of function
What type of response is inflammation? Non-specific immune response
what are the three basic stages of the inflammatory response? 1. vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels 2. emigration of phagocytes from the blood into interstitual fluid 3. tissue repair
Vasodilation and increased permeability of capillaries Increased permeability means substances normally retained in blood are permitted to pass from the blod vessels. vasodilation= more blood flow to the area
What three symptoms of inflammation does vasoldilation and increased permeability give rise to? Heat, redness, swelling.
Emigration of phagocytes After 1 hour, phagocytes appear. neutrophils stick to inner surface of enothelium. Neutrophils squeeze through to reach injured area. Depends on chemotaxis.
Mechanism of acromio-clavicular joint distruption usually follows trauma, eg due to a direct blow to the acromion with the humerus adducted, as in collision in high-impact contact sports, or after a fall on to the apex of the shoulder. Injury may occur as consequence of throwing sports or weightlifting
Type 1 joint distruption joint sprained without tear of either ligament
Type 2 joint distruption Ac ligaments torn but CC ligaments still intact. lateral end of clavicle not elevated
Type 3 joint distruption AC and CC ligaments torn >5mm elevation of AC joint in X-ray
Type 4 joint distruption lateral clavicle separated and impaled posteriorly into trapezial fascia.
Type 5 joint distruption complete separation of clavicle and scapula with gross upward clavicular displacement.
How are type 1 and 2 injuries managed? with ice, a sling for 1-3 weeks and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) followed by physiotherapy to strengthen muscles and ligaments after the acute phase.
how are type 3 and 4 injuries managed? •Type III injuries should be managed conservatively but carefully selected cases may benefit from surgical intervention if conservative therapy fails
What is the difference between a tendon and a ligament? Tendons attach muscle to bone. Ligaments attach bone to bone
Created by: Taryn Miller