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REL 2300

Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
seven dimensions of religion Ritual, Narrative and mythic, Experiential and emotional, Social and institutional, Ethical and legal, Doctrinal and philosophical, Material.
theories about why there are religions Humans cannot live without organized social structures, and that religion is a glue that holds a society together; Religions are organized systems that serve the essential biological purpose of bringing people together for their common survival;
method in the study of religion Psychology, sociology, anthropology, geography, history, philosophy, archaeology, medicine, literature, art, language, immersion, humanistics, and music.
terms in the study of religion Origins and eras, practice, texts, beliefs, effects on history, politics, social impact, similarities, relations between religion, individuals, connection between religion and science, lifestyle, and geographical location to name a few
the vedas The religious texts often referred to as the foundations of Hinduism; Were the product of the invaders and not the indigenous Indians, or perhaps a combination of both cultures; talks about origins, priestly practices, and asceticism.
the upanishads Teachings from highly realized spiritual masters where emphasis is placed not on outward ritual performances, but on inner experience as the path to realization and immortality.
major philosophical systems Hinduism shares close ties and similarities with Jainism and Buddhism.
brahman Absolute reality.
atman Soul / Sliver of Brahma.
the ramayana A long poetic narrative in Sanskrit thought to have been compiled between 400BCE and 200 CE; It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters such as the ideal brother/king/servant/wife/etc.
the caste system Brahmins: Priests Kshatriyas: Warriors / Kings Vaishyas: Farmers / Merchants Shudra: Manual laborers / Artisans Dalits: Untouchables / Outcasts
the bhagavad gita "the song of god”; Arjuna’s predicament of going into battle; Krishna convinces him to do so. Fulfill your own dharma so it effects your karma and next life.
bhakti yoga Devotion (Bhagavad Gita)
puja Public worship.
rituals, pilgrimages, festivals of hinduism Birth – horoscope; Coming of Age – sacred thread ceremony; Marriage – saptapadi; Death – cremation; Kumbha Mela - held at four alternating sacred spots where drops of the holy nectar of immortality are said to have fallen; Divali 4-day festival of lights
the triple gem of buddhism The Buddha (the Enlightened One), the Dharma (the teachings he gave), the Sangha (community)
siddhartha gautama wish-fulfiller; he who has reached his goal; founder of Buddhism
the four noble truths Life inevitably involves suffering, dissatisfaction, and distress. Suffering is caused by craving, rooted in ignorance. Suffering will cease when craving ceases. There is a way to realize this state: the Noble Eightfold Path.
the eightfold path Ethical compassion, Mental discipline, and Insight.
core doctrines Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path, Nirvana, Reincarnation, etc.
sangha The community of monks and nuns and lay people.
theravada buddhism "Way of the Elders"; mediation on the 4 noble truths; Pali canon of sutra, vinaya, and abidharma; oldest living form of Buddhism.
mahayana buddhism "Greater Vehicle"; compassion, universalistic, bodhisattvas.
pure land buddhism People devote themselves to Amitaha, who used his pure virtue to manifest a Pure Land of Bliss for all those who called his name.
chan/zen buddhism Chan: silent meditation with an emphasis on mediation and direct insight to reach enlightenment; Zen: claims to preserve the essence of the Buddha’s teachings through direct experience, triggered by mind-to-mind transmission of the Dharma.
tibetan buddhism Deity yoga; prayer wheels, prayer flags, celestial beings, and the Dalai Lama "Ocean of Wisdom"
ahisma Nonviolence
vardhamana mahavira Like the Buddha, he was the prince of a Kshatriya clan and renounced his position to become a spiritual seeker. Extremely mistreated and misunderstood by his peers. He is considered the last of 24 Tirthankaras (Fordmakers) of the current cosmic cycle.
digambara The "sky-clad" group who wear nothing at all, only have a gourd and a broom as possessions, and believe that women are inferior in every way to a man.
svetambara The group that stayed behind and changed their practices to include wearing simple white robes and considering women on the same level as men.
mahavrata (the five principles) The Five Principles Jains must vow to take are: nonviolence, truth, non-stealing, chastity, and non-possession.
festivals and pilgrimages of jainism Divali – for Jains it’s an occasion for a three-day fast and an entire night spent reciting hymns and meditating on Mahavir, who is said to have attained liberation on Divali; People may travel to worship at famous sites, many located on hills/mountains
pratikramana A process of repentance of sins during which Jains repent for their wrongdoings during their daily life, and remind themselves to refrain from doing so again. Devout Jains often do Pratikraman at least twice a day.
guru nanak The 1st Guru of Sikhism who introduced the idea of a social order based on equality, justice, and service to all, in devotion to the One God whom [he] perceived as formless, pervading everywhere.
central beliefs of sikhism Working hard in society to earn one’s own honest living (Instead of withdrawing in asceticism and begging); Sharing one’s earnings with those who are needy; Remembering God at all times as the only Doer, the only Giver.
onkar God / the Supreme Being
adi granth The holy scriptures of Sikhism which became the final Guru
khalsa The Pure Ones who were tasked with protecting religious tolerance. They had key items to mark their dedication: uncut hair, a comb, a small sheathed sword, an iron bracelet (ring) and special underwear.
gurdwara The building where the Guru Granth Sahib is enshrined and public worship takes place
torah Also, called the Pentateuch, it is the first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible.
synagogues meeting places to read the Torah and to worship communally, praying simply and directly to God
mishnah Judah the Prince completed a terse edition of legal teachings of the oral Torah
talmud a vast compendium of law, Midrash, and argument
midrash the process of studying and thoroughly interpreting Hebrew scriptures
orthodox judaism They strictly follow the rules of the Torah; They do their services in Hebrew; They eat Kosher; They don’t wear mixed fabrics; They segregate themselves from the secular world; They are heavily patriarchal;
hasidism They have a more positive outlook on life; They have a more personal relationship with God; They’re traditional but adapt to time; They are more strict than Orthodox; They’re isolationists; There’s an emphasis on simplicity, joy, love, and prayer
reform judaism They don’t believe in the forbidden foods of the Torah; They believe in scientific research; They’re open to change; They’re the first group to ordain women and gays as rabbis; They’re connected to Orthodox; They’re open to converts
conservative judaism They are in the middle of Orthodox and Reform; They are more conservative towards historical practices like worship; They are open to modern issues like dress; They change with the times because look at something’s historical weights;
reconstructionist judaism They’re shaped from science and don’t believe in God; They’re only in America; They believe that traditional can’t reconcile with modern; They created a new bible that’s more politically correct; They’re not very popular;
the shoah (holocaust) the murder of almost 6 million European Jews by the Nazi leadership of Germany during World War II.
sabbath observed as an eternal sign of the covenant between the Jews and God
yom kippur renewing the sacred covenant with God in spirit of atonement and cleansing
hanukkah the Feast of Dedication
passover it celebrates the liberation from bondage in Egypt and the springtime advent of new life.
zionism places central emphasis on resettlement of the Jewish people in Israel as the working out of a divine plan for the salvation not only of Jews but also for the whole world
jesus the proposed Son of God who served as the Messiah for everyone's sins.
baptism a ritual where Christians are "born again" and cleansed of their sins
eucharist the eating and drinking of bread and wine as a representation of Jesus' body and blood as instructed at the Last Supper
gnosticism mystical perception of knowledge; held that only spiritually mature individuals could apprehend Jesus’ real teaching: that the Kingdom of Heaven is a present reality experienced through personal realization of the Light.
constantine The first leader of the Roman Empire to convert to Christianity and stop its persecution
orthodox christianity Christians in Constantinople thought the bishop or patriarch (a Greek word meaning father and also an office in the church) of Constantinople should have just as much authority as the bishop of Rome.
sacraments and worship services (christianity) Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches observe seven sacraments: Baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, holy orders, and matrimony. ;Protestant Churches observe two sacraments: Baptism and Eucharist. Liturgy is in a public place
martin luther a monk, priest, and Professor of Biblical Studies at the University of Wittenberg who disagreed with the Catholic church's practices, so he nailed his theses to the church door and was excommunicated
john calvin shared the reform principles of salvation by faith alone, the exclusive authority of the Bible, and the “priesthood of all believers."
henry VIII The Pope denied Henry a divorce, so Henry passed the Act of Supremacy which founded the (Anglican) Church of England with Henry as it's official head.
fundamentalism Five points: biblical inerrancy, virgin birth of christ, substitutionary atonement, bodily resurrection, and authenticity of miracles.
the liturgical year and holidays Epiphany celebrates the recognition of Jesus’ spiritual kingship by the 3 Magi; Lent is the forty-day period of repentance and fasting leading up to Easter; Advent is supposed to be a time of joyous anticipation in the month leading up to Christmas;
muhammad considered by Muslims to be the last of a continuing chain of prophets who have come to restore the true religion
the hijrah hijrah (emigration from Mecca to Medina) is start of Islamic calendar. Dates are written as AH “year of the hijrah."
qur'an the sacred book of Islam which is divided into 114 chapters (sutras); teaches that God’s original messages have been added to and distorted by humans;
sunni islam consider themselves traditionalists, and they emphasize the authority of the Qur’an and the Hadith and Sunnah. They believe that Muhammad died without appointing a successor and left the matter of successors to the ummah – “the Muslim community”
shi'a islam feel that ‘Ali was the rightful original successor to the Prophet Muhammad; pay allegiance to a succession of seven or twelve Imams (leaders, guides): The Twelfth Imam, was commanded by God to hide to continue to guide the people.
sufism involved resistance to the legalistic, intellectual trends within Islam in its early development; Sufis consider their way a path to God that is motivated by longing for the One
the five pillars of islam 1st: professing your faith; 2nd: continual round of prayers (5/day); 3rd: charity; 4th: fasting during Ramadan; 5th: pilgrimage to Mecca.
mosque places of worship that have four essential features: a fountain for washing hands and feet, a large area for prayer, a pulpit for Friday sermons, and a mihrab which is a niche in the middle of the wall closest to Mecca indicating the direction of prayer
islamic fundamentalism A belief in the unchangeableness and finality of certain interpretations of the Qur’an and Islamic law;
nation of islam goals are to improve the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African Americans in the United States and all of humanity
malcolm x Best known advocate of Nation of Islam in 50s and 60s
hybridity the melding of indigenous practices with other religions-particularly Christianity and Islam
cosmogony models of the origins of the universe and their purpose within it, as well as a working knowledge of their own bioregion
lifeway a particular approach to all of life ; In most native cultures, spiritual lifeways are shared orally; The people create and pass on songs, proverbs, myths, riddles, short sayings, legends, art, music, and the like.
characteristics of indigenous religions Diversity, most indigenous traditions tend to be oral societies (still have texts in the form of ritual practices and narratives), engagement in the spiritual world
mana the power of spirit that is believed to be highly concentrated
shaman a Siberian term for those who offer themselves as mystical intermediaries between the physical and the nonphysical world for specific purposes, such as healing.
confucianism a school of thought that emphasizes the cultivation of moral virtues and the interaction between human rulers and Heaven, with political involvement as the way to transforming the world
confucius proposed that the rulers should perform classical rites and music properly so that they would remain of visibly high moral character and thus inspire the common people to be virtuous; Felt that return to classical rites and standards of virtue was needed
five relationships of confucianism parent and child, older and younger siblings, husband and wife, ruler and subject, and friend and friend
neo-confucianism the revised version during the Song dynasty that was revised on the premise that Buddhism and Daoism had brought moral and thus political weakness into Chinese society.
daoism concerned with direct experience of the universe, accepting and cooperating with things, as they are, not with setting standards of morality, not with labeling things as good or bad.
the daodejing The book’s central philosophy is a practical concern with improving harmony in life; It says one can best harmonize with the natural flow of life by being receptive and quiet.
the dao the “unnamable,” the “eternally real"; One is to experience the transcendent unity of all things, rather than separation; It can only be attained when one ceases to feel any personal preferences.
wuwei actionless action or taking no intentional or invasive action contrary to the natural flow of things
daoist schools In the Way of Orthodox Unity there is the introduction of divinities, especially in the deification of Laozi; Complete Perfection mixes Daoism, Chan (Zen) Buddhism, and Neo-Confucianism and the dominant school in China
daoist alchemy individual spiritual practices for the sake of inner transformation, self-cultivation, longevity, and perhaps immortality; The aim is to use the energy available to the body in order to become strong and healthy and to perceive the order of the universe
joseph smith the founder of the mormonism; translated the book of mormon; moved west to found the religion's Zion but was killed; successor: brigham young
the book of mormon smith translated the golden plates using the urim and thummim with the help of his family and close friends
reorganized latter day saints he smaller group that stayed in the Midwest as separate congregations and were reorganized in 1860. They believe that Smith had not authorized plural marriage and that Smith’s son was the rightful leader of the Church.
baptism for the dead (proxy) baptizing the dead who did not get a chance to hear the book of Mormon so that the dead may be connected to the living in the afterlife.
celestial marriage a marriage that is valid for all eternity and survives after death
degrees of glory Outer Darkness - Satan and his helpers. Telestial - reserved for gospel/jesus rejectors, liars, adulterers. Terrestrial - reserved for baptized non-mormons who lived good lives. Celestial - reserved for mormons in good standing
plural marriage The mainstream Church denounces polygamy and claims it will excommunicate anyone found to be practicing polygamy
mormon fundamentalism the smallest group of Mormons that started in the 1930s because of common beliefs such as that the mainstream Church had strayed from God, that plural marriage is a revelation from God, and that the priesthood is an intricate part of church authority
apocalypticisim describing or prophesying the complete destruction of the world
characteristics of apocalyptic christianity Tend to have extreme notions of a restoration of early Christianity; Distinct ideas about what will happen in the end times; See themselves as connected to Jewish antiquity; Frequently very dualistic (good vs evil)
jehovah's witnesses developed in US, no blood transfusions, rejection of trinity, no idols or crosses, Jesus was crucified on a “torture stake”, Lord’s Evening Meal once a year
new world translation Witnesses own version of the bible that is modified to include Witness doctrine like exclusive use of the name “Jehovah
kingdom halls the name for the church's congregational buildings; very simple auditorium with a place for literature
L. ron hubbard became interested in how the mind worked and developed a theory about it while he was "exempt" from WWII. He died when he "willingly dropped his body into another dimension"
dianetics gets rid of the unwanted sensations, unpleasant emotions, and psychosomatic ills that block one’s life and happiness”; It is also a route to a wall, happy, high IQ human being
auditing The goal is a “win” or a moment of revelation and one cannot leave an auditing session until achieving a win over the mind's engrams (unknowing and unwarranted fears that keep us from living a happy life)
scientology is said to mean the study of truth or knowledge about knowledge; The official position of the Church is that it is not a religion about space aliens but a set of beliefs to live a better life.
operating thetan One who can handle things without having to use a body or physical means – or one who controls MEST(Matter.Energy.Space.Time) and is not controlled by it
cult represents a distinct break from other traditions
sect a splinter group or a subgroup associated with a larger tradition
unification movement God created the universe in order to manifest true love, and the human family is considered the primary institution for the growth of love; to unite the world under one umbrella of love/religion
baha'i movement attempts to unite all of humanity in the belief that there is only one God, the foundation of all religions; believe that God is unknowable; the goal is to end all prejudice; believe all the messengers of other religions are manifestations of God
rastafari the dream of returning blacks to Africa so they can rebuild a great civilization; Rastafarians wear their hair in long uncombed curls, called dreadlocks, a lion-like main symbolizing the natural nonindustrial life to revolt against Babylon
opposition to new religious movements Negative description (cults), not recognizing it, forced conversion into (brainwashing), force conversion out of (deprogramming), indoctrination, socialization, laws, and vigilantism.
The Harappa Civilization (Date) BCE 2500
Date of the Vedas BCE 1500
Date of the Upanishads BCE 600-100
Birth and Death of the Buddha BCE c.5th Century
Development of Mahayana Buddhism (date) CE 1st Century
Life of Guru Nanak (date) CE 1469-c.1539
Guru Granth Sahib becomes the Eternal Guru (date CE 1708
Date of the first jewish temple destroyed BCE 586
date of maccabean revolt BCE 167
date of second jewish temple destroyed CE 70
date of jesus' birth/crucifixion 4 BCE - 0CE; 27-33CE
date of split between western and eastern orthodox churches CE 1054
date of muhammad's birth CE 570
date of qur'an revelation CE 610
date of the hijrah CE 622
date of book of mormon publishing CE 1830
date of the first scientology church opening CE 1954
Created by: JacobGant
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