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Path 9

NeuroEndocrine Systems

How are neuroendocrine cells readily identified by their characteristic positivity with silver stains and their immunoreactivity with antibodies directed against neuroendocrine products
Most neuroendocrine cells are derived from? neural crest
where do gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine cells come from? endoderm
Are steroid producing cells of the ovary, testis, thyroid, and adrenal cortex neuroendocrine cells? no
what is primary hyperparathyroidism excess PTH produced by parathyroid in absence of extraparathyroid stimulus
what is secondary hyperparathyroidism hypocalcemic stimulation of PTH secretion and cell proliferation
what is the most common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism chronic renal failure
what is tertiary hyperparathyroidism autonomous primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism
what causes 80% of primary hyperparathyroidism adenoma (usually a single gland)
How can you differentiate hyperplasia vs. adenoma with primary hyperparathyroidism hyperplasia is usually all 4 glands and adenoma is often 1 gland
Someone with high calcium (>15), a neck mass and bone disease may have? parathyroid carcinoma
what is the most likely cause of death in people with parathyroid carcinoma hypercalcemia
The adrenal cortex is derived from? mesoderm
what is Addison's disease primary chronic adrenal insufficiency usually autoimmune
what is a "crisis" in chronic Addison's disease primary acute adrenal insufficiency
Waterhouse Friderichsen syndrome is primary adrenal insufficiency due to ? meningococcemia
what is Conn's syndrome hyperaldosteronism
what is Cushing's syndrome hypercortisolism
what does an adrenal adenoma secrete may secrete aldosterone, cortisol, or sex steroids (many are nonfunctioning)
what does an adrenal adenoma look like most are solitary small and bright yellow
How do you distinguish an adrenal adenoma from a carcinoma carcinomas are large, pleomorphic, have a high mitotic rate, atypical mitosis, venous invasion, necrosis, and capsular invasion
what is an adrenal mass in the medulla that secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine resulting in hypertension pheochromocytoma
this tumor is one of the most common tumors in infancy and childhood and is the most common congenital tumor Neuroblastoma
what will you find in the urine with neuroblastoma increased urinary homovanillic acid, vanillylmandelic acid, dopamine, or metanephrine
what is a benign tumor consisting of a mixture of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic cells often found as an incidental finding at autopsy myelolipoma
what are chemodectomas paragangliomas of the carotid and aorticopulmonary paragangliomas
paragangliomas form distinctive cell nests called ? that are arranged around capillary channels zellballen
How are islet cell tumors of the pancreas classified according to the hormones that they produce
what is a beta cell pancreatic tumor called insulinoma
what is the most common type of islet cell tumor insulinoma
what is another name for a gastrinoma Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
What would you expect to see in a patient with Zollinger Ellison Syndrome multiple peptic ulcers, high gastric acid secretion, high plasma gastrin levels
what percent of Zollinger Ellison Syndrome are malignant 65%
What is the gene that predisposes to MEN-1 menin tumor supressor
what is the gene that predisposes to MEN II RET proto-oncogene
you have a neoplasm of mucocutaneous neuromas, pheochromocytomas, and medullary cancer of the thyroid. Which MEN is it MEN IIb
you have neoplasms or hyperplasias of the parathyroid gland, adrenal cortex, pituitary and pancreas plus peptic ulcers and gastric hypersecretion which MEN syndrome to you have MEN I
Which MEN syndrome has multiple pheochromocytomas, medullary carcinomas of the thyroid, and parathyroid hyperplasia or adenoma MEN IIa
Created by: UVAPATH1



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