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FBSF Chapter 7

The Muscular System Chapter 7

The three types of muscle are 1.Skeletal(striated) muscle 2.Smooth(visceral) muscle 3.Cardiac muscle
Skeletal(striated)muscles are voluntary(you have control)
Smooth(visceral) muscles are involuntary(autonomic)(you do not have control)
Examples of smooth(visceral) muscle are found in the GI tract(peristalsis), uterus, blood vessels(vasoconstriction & vasodilation), and the urinary bladder
Cardiac muscle is involuntary(you do not have control)
Cardiac muscle cells also have the unique ability to receive an impluse, contract, immediately relax, and then receive another impulse
Examples of skeletal(striated) muscles include 1.Biceps brachii(flexes an inferior arm) 2.Triceps brachii(extends an inferior arm)
Most voluntary & skeletal muscles are connected to a bone by a strong, tough, nonelastic, white collagenous fibrous cord known as a tendon
Cardiac muscle is unique because when one cardiac muscle cell is stimulated all the cardiac muscle cells are stimulated
The stimulation causes the cardiac muscle cells to contract together
A steady or constant state of partial contraction maintained in a muscle is called muscle tone
Some muscle cells in a muscle will always be contracting while other muscle cells are at rest
Then the other muscles at rest will contract while those that were contracting will go into relaxation
The contracting and relaxing of the muscles allows us to maintain body posture for long periods of time without tiring
The relaxation and contracting of muscles is accomplished because nerve impulses alternate between various groups of muscle cells thus allowing all to have periods of rest.
Two types of muscle contraction include 1.Isotonic 2.Isometric
Isotonic contractions occur when lifting a weight, muscles become shorter and thicker and the tone (tension) remains the same
Isometric contractions occur when pushing against a wall, the muscles involved remain at a constant length and the tone(tension) against the muscle increases
The more fixed attachment of a muscle that serve as a basis for the action is the origin
The moveable attachment where the effects of muscular contraction are seen, is called the insertion
Muscles can be named according to their action such as 1.Adductor(movement of a limb TOWARD the midline of the body) 2.Abductor(movement of a limb away from the midline of the body) 3.Flexor(bending a limb at a joint) 4.Extensor(extending a limb at a joint)
Muscles can be named according to their shape such as 1.Quadratus(square) 2.Trapezius(triangular)
Muscles can be named according to their origin & insertion such as the sternocleidomastoid(sternum/origin & mastoid/action-insertion/behind ear)
Sternocleidomastoid muscles are primarily used to move the head
Muscles can be named according to their location such as 1.Frontalis(forehead) raises your eyebrows 2.Tibialis(anterior inferior leg/shin) 3.Radialis(inferior laterial(thumb side) side
Muscles can be named according to the number of divisions such as 1.Biceps brachii(2) 2.Triceps brachii(3) 3.Quadriceps(4)
Muscles can be named according to the direction their fibers run such as transverse(across) or oblique(slanted)
Muscles that rotate a limb are called rotators
Movement of the foot upward is called dorsiflexion
Movement of the foot toward the ground is called plantar flexion
Turning a palm so that it faces the ground is called pronation(face down)
The two muscles that cause a palm to face downward are called the pronator teres & pronator quadratus
Turning a palm upwards is called supination(on back)
The muscles that causes a palm to face upward is called the supinator muscle
The muscle that draws the scalp backwards is called the occipitalis
The muscles involved in smiling & laughing are called zygomaticus(cheek)
The muscles that close the jaw are the masseter & temporalis
The muscles that move a scapula include the 1.Levator scapulae(shrug) 2.Rhomboids 3.Pectoralis minor 4.Trapezius
The muscle that flexes & adducts(brings in toward the middle) an arm is called the pectoralis major
The muscle that extends, adducts and rotates an arm medially(swimming) is called the latissimus dorsi
The muscle that abducts(move away from middle) and is a site for intramuscular(IM) injections is called the deltoid
The muscle that flexes a wrist is called the flexor carpi
The muscle that extends a wrist is called the extensor carpi
The muscles that flex the fingers or toes are called flexor digitora
The muscles that extend the fingers or toes are called extensor digitora
The muscle that flexes a thumb is called the flexor pollicis(thumb--text messaging)
The muscle that extends a thumb is called the extensor pollicis(thumb--hitch hike)
The muscle that moves a thumb toward midline is called the adductor pollicis(thumb)
The muscle that moves a thumb away from midline is called the abductor pollicis(thumb)
The muscles that make up the abdominal wall include 1.External oblique 2.Internal oblique 3.Transversus abdominis 4.Rectus abdominis(washboard)
The muscles that flexes and opposes a thumb & is used when we write is called the(grab things) opponens pollicis(opposition)
The muscles of ventilation include 1.Diaphragm(main muscle of ventilation) 2.Internal intercostals(muscle between ribs) 3.External intercostals(muscle between ribs)
The muscles of the buttocks include 1.Gluteus maximus(cheek) 2.Gluteus minimus 3.Gluteus medius(IM injections)
The muscles that flex a knee include 1.Biceps femoris 2.Semitendinosus 3.Semimembranosus 4.Popliteus 5.Gracilis 6.Sartorius
The biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus, make up the hamstrings
The muscles that extend a knee include 1.Rectus femoris 2.Vastus lateralis(IM injection) 3.Vastus medialis 4.Vastus intermedius
The rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis & vastus intermedius make up the quadriceps femoris group
The five muscles that plantar flex a foot (bring it downward) include 1.Gastrocnemius(calf) 2.Tibialis posterior 3.Soleus 4.Peroneus longus 5.Plantaris
Two muscles dorsiflex a foot (bring it upward) include 1.Tibialis anterior 2.Peroneus tertius
How many skeletal muscles does the human body have 650
If all the skeletal muscles worked together, they could lift 11 tons
The three IntraMuscular(IM) injection sites are 1.Deltoid muscle 2.Gluteus medius 3.Vastus lateralis(thigh)
Created by: pattiluv