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AP HUG Ch. 6

Mr. Nyren's AP HUG Ch. 6: Language

language a set of sounds, combination of sounds and symbols that are used for communication
standard language the variant of a language that a country's political & intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life.
dialects local or regional characteristics of a language; while accent refer to the pronunciation differences of a standard language, a dialect, in addition to pronunciation variation, has distinctive grammar and vocabulary
isogloss a geographic boundary within which a paticular lingustic feature accurs.
mutual inteligibility the ability of two pwople to understand each other when speaking
dialect chains a set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related
language families group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
subfamilies divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent
sound shift slight change in a word across languages within subfamilies or through a language family from the present backward toward its origin
Proto-Indo-European linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages
backward reconstruction the tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants "backward" toward the original language
extinct language language without any native speakers
deep reconstruction technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that proceeded the extinct language
nostratic language believed to be the ancestral language not only of Proto-Indo-European, but also the Kartvelian languages. languages such as Hungarian, Finnish, Turkish, and Mongolian
language divergence the opposite of language convergence; a process suggested by German linguist August Schleicher whereby new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects due to the lack of spatialinteraction among speakers of the language
language convergence the collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of people with different languages; the opposite of language divergence
Romance languages languages such as French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian and Portuguese
Germanic languages languages such as English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish
Slavic languages languages that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago
lingua franca today, it refers to a "common language" a language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce.
pidgin language when parts of two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary
Creole language a language that began as a pidgin language, but was later adopted by the mother tongue by the people in places of the mother tongue
monolingual states countries in which only one language is spoken
multilingual states countries in which more than one language is spoken
official language in multilingual countries, the language selected , often by the educated and politically powerful elite, to promote intrenal cohesion; usually the language of the courts and the government
global language the language commonly used around the world
place uniqueness of a location
toponym place name
Created by: DH_love