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Chapter8 Rubenstein

QuestionAnswer
In 2009, how many members are there in the United Nations 192
an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an establishment govt. with control State
What is a synonym for state? country
Know the problem with Korea and if it is one state or two. Korea divided after Japan was defeated in WWII. The government was committed to reuniting the country into one sovereign state, but their reunification was stopped after N. Korea decided to make nuclear weapons.
Know the problem between China and Taiwan. The problem was that China thought Taiwan and China were one state but many other countries including Taiwan believe they are separate and sovereign states.
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states Sovereignty
Problem with Western Sahara (Sahrawi Republic) Western Sahara is considered as a sovereign state but Morocco claims the territory. Built a 2,700-kilometer wall around the territroy to keep out rebels. The UN has failed to reach a resolution among parties.
Polar Regions: Many Claims What are the problems many claims have been made on Antarctica and the Arctic Circle.
What is the Antarctic Treaty? Provides legal framework for managing Antarctica. States can establish research stations there for scientific investigation, but no military activities.
What is The Law of the Sea? Permitted countries to submit claims inside the Arctic Circle by 2009.
A state that encompasses a very small land area MicrostatesA
What is the Fertile Crescent? Formed an arc between the Persian GUlf and the Mediterranean Sea.
A sovereign state comprising a city and the surrounding countryside City-state
What were the first states to evolve in Mesopotamia were called City-states
How did the walls help defend the Roman Empire? Helped defend many of the empire's frontiers
What formed the basis for the development of such Modern European states like England, France, and Spain. The consolidation of neighboring states under the unified control of a king
Territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state than completely independent Colony
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory. Colonialism
Why did Europeans states establish colonies elsewhere in the world. To promote Christianity, to extract useful resources for markets, and to establish relative power through the number of colonies.
Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous groups. Imperialism
Where did the British plant their colonies Every continent
What was the state with the largest colonial empire and what was their quote The British "Sun never set"
Invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory Boundary
What controls the length of a state's boundaries with other states Shape of a state
What are the 5 basic shapes Compact, Perforated, Prorupted, Elongated, and Fragmented
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly Compact State
Problem with a state being compact Civil wars and ethical rivalries
A state with a long and narrow shape Elongated
Problems with elongated states May suffer from poor internal communications and more isolation
An otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension Prorupted states
Problem with prorupted states Isolation
Why are proruptions created To provide a state with access to a resource and to separate two states that otherwise would share a boundary
States that completely surround another one Perforated State
Problem with perforated Border between the two countries divided families and ethnic groups. Conflict with nation within it as well.
Includes several discontinuous pieces of territory Fragmented state
Problems with fragmented Some may attempt to break away from others
Lacks a direct outlet to the sea Surrounded by other countries Landlocked state
Problems with landlocked No link to ocean where gods can be traded and they must rely on neighboring countries
What are the two types of boundaries Physical and cultural
coincide with significant features of the natural landscape Physical boundaries
Follow the distribution of cultural characteristics Cultural boundaries
What are the best boundaries Where all the affected states agree, regardless of the rationale used to draw the line
Why are desert boundaries good boundaries Deserts are hard to cross and sparsely inhabited
Why are mountain boundaries good Difficult to cross, rather permanent, and sparsely inhabited
What are rivers, lakes and oceans used for Boundaries
Problem with water boundaries Precise position of the water may change over time and water boundaries can slowly change their course
What is the Law of the Sea States have exclusive rights to the fish and other marine life within 200 miles. Countries separated by less than 400 miles must negotiate the location of the boundary between exclusive fishing rights
Two types of cultural boundaries geometric and ethnic
simple straight lines drawn on a map Geometric boundaries
boundaries between countries to separate followers of different religions Religious Boundaries
sboundaries between countries to separate followers of different religions Language boundarie
What separated states instead of boundaries frontiers
Zone where no stat exercises complete political control Frontiers
Pros of a frontier Provides an area of separation whereas a boundary brings two neighboring states into direct contact, increasing the potential for violent face-to-face meetings
Two ways that governments of states are Unitary and Federal
Places most power in the hands of central government officials Unitary state
Allocates strong power to units of local govt. within the country Federal state
Is the US a unitary state or federal state Federal
What influences the evolution of a country's governmental system Country's Cultural and Physical characteristics
Characteristics of a Unitary government Works best in nation-states characterized by few internal cultural differences and a strong sense of national unity. It requires effective communication. Smaller states are more common to adopt unitary government. common in Europe.
Characteristics of a federal government Local governments possess more authority to adopt their own laws. Common with multinational states to empower different nationalities. Boundaries can be drawn to correspond with regions inhabited different ethnicities. Made for very large states.
Do most people choose unitary or federal Trend toward federal government
When did Poland switch from unitary to federal After control of the national government was wrested from the Communists
The process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power Gerrymandering
Elbridge Gerry The one who made gerrymandering by signing a bill that redistricted the state to benefit his party.
3 types of gerrymandering Wasted, Stacked, and Excess
When was gerrymandering made illegal 1985 by the Supreme Court
When was the UN created? End of WWII by the victorious allies
What 3 occasions did the membership of the UN grew vastly? 1955: Countries that have been liberated after WWII 1960:17 new members were added 1990: 26 joined after the breakup between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union
What was the world's first attempt at international peacemaking? The League of Nations
Why did the League of Nations fail? The US never joined
What important role does the UN have? Tries to separate warring groups on a number of regions
Where does the UN get its troops Individual countries
WHo are the superpowers during the cold war USA and the Soviet Union
Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing alliances Balance of POwer
What is NATO and what is its purpose North Atlantic Treaty Organization Military alliance with 16 democratic states whose principal objective was to prevent the Soviet Union from overrunning W Germany and other small countries
What is the purpose of the Warsaw Pact Provided the Soviet UNion with a buffer of allied states between it and Germany to discourage a third German invasion of the Soviet UNion in the 20th century.
Name 4 other Organizations that provide international peace. OSCE, OAS, AU, and the Commonwealth
What is the contemporary pattern of global power most important elements of state power are more increasingly economic than military and that the leading superpower is not a single state but an economic union of European states
What is the main task of the European Union Promote development within the member states through economic cooperation
Systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demands Terrorism
Ways that terrorists use to induce terror Bombing, kidnapping, hijacking, taking of hostages, and assassination
When was the term terror first applied Period of the French Revolution, known as the Reign of Terror
Who are the terrorists main targets Citizens who happen to be at the target at the time of the attack
Were terrorists also American citizens Yes
Who was the Unabomber and why was he called that Theodore J. Kaczynski and he sent bombs through the mail
What was the most dramatic attack on the US September 11, 2001
Were terrorists also American citizens Yes
Who was the Unabomber and why was he called that To support the fight against the Soviet Army and the country's Soviet installed government
What was the most dramatic attack on the US September 11, 2001
Who was the organization responsible for 9/11 and who founded it Because the US supported Saudi Arabia and Israe
Why did Osama move to Afghanistan during the mid-1980's unknown
What is a jihad holy war
Why did bin Laden issue a declaration of war on the US Because the US supported Saudi Arabia and Israel
How many are in Al-Qaeda the numbers are unknown
How did the Taliban treat women? treated them harshly COuld not attend school or go outside without being fully clothed and accompanied by a male relative
What are the three increasing levels of terrorism Providing sanctuary, supplying weapons , money and intelligence, and planning attacks using terrorists.
What was Libya accused of sponsoring a 1986 bombing of a nightclub in Berlin killing three.
Why did the US attack Afghanistan in 2001 The Taliban sheltered Osama bin Laden and other Al-Qaeda terrorists
How did the Taliban treat women? The Taliban prohibited women from attending school, working outside the home, seeking health care, or driving a car and also not permitted to leave unless they are fully clothed and accompanied by a male relative
What was the benefit of having the Taliban rule It temporarily suppressed a civil war after Mohammed Daoud Khan overthrew the king
Why did the US attach Iraq in 2003 TO remove the weapons of mass destruction and to depose Saddam Hussein
What was known as Operation Desert Storm US led Gulf War where they failed to get Hussein
What evidence did the UN have that Iraq had weapoons of mass destruction a nuclear radiation program, a program for making weapons from the VX nerve agent, and a biological weapons program
When did the hostility between the US and Iran dates back to when 1979 when a revolution forced abdication of Iran's pro-US Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Who was the immediate target on the war of Terrorism Afghanistan then Iraq
When was Pakistan created? Pakistan along with India was created in 1947 when S Asia was partitioned into predominantly Muslim and Hindu states.
Created by: NvTerra