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Anthro Test 3: Keefe

Key Terms for the Test

QuestionAnswer
Sickness All unwanted variations in physical, social and psychological dimensions of health”; “unwanted conditions of self
Disease Outward/clinical manifestations of altered physical function or infection
Illness Human experiences and perceptions of alterations in health as informed by their broader social and cultural meaning.
Medical Pluralism Using multiple ethnomedical systems to achieve health
Cultural Construction of Disease/Sickness The culture of a society constructs the way...members think and feel about sickness and healing
Worldview A set of ideas and assumptions about the way the world works.
medical anthropology The study of health, illness and healing across a range of human societies and over the course of human experience.
Biomedicine Western medicine, with its basis in science and emphasis on the physical body
statuses positions in the social structure defined in terms of authority, privileges, duties, and sometime prestige. (President)
roles duties or guidelines for behavior in a certain status and specifications for relationships to other statuses
ascribed a status given at birth. (Daughter, Sister)
achieved a status acquired during a lifetime (College student)
formal social structure one with precisely specified statuses and role relationships among them
hierarchical social status some members have more status and power than others
social class a group in a hierarchy of groups distinguished on the basis of privileges made possibly by control over valuable resources, such as wealth.
Power Defined as the ability to influence the ideas and actions of others, to set the agenda for the group, and to control human and other resources.
Authority the right granted to exercise power.
nuclear family parents and unmarried children
tribe a larger group. Made up of multiple kin groups. (Lakota Sioux)
Lineages larger kin groups whose members trace descent from a common ancestor.
clans members who claim decent from a mythical being.
chiefdom composed of kin groups but they and their leaders and arranged in a hierarchy
state
bride service a husbands duty to his wife's father until she has three children
namesakes relationships formed by naming a child after another person. Usually a kin person beyond the nuclear family.
egalitarian few statuses or authority differences between individuals except between generations
parilineal primogeniture from father to first son.
rank differences in power (Eagle Scout)
matrilineal clans trace lineage from moms side. Claim to come from mystical ancestor.
corporate lineage large, formal social structure based on kinship and collective control of income-producing power
patrilineal lineages decedents through the male line of on ancestor who settled in the locality
exogamy marrying one outside of their kin group
miscegenation interracial marriage
Lineal kin direct line of decent (daughter or grandfather)
Collateral kin share some common ancestor (cousin)
affinal kin connected through a marriage bond. (mother-in-law)
cross-cousin child of mom's bro, or child of dad's sis
parallel cousin child of mom's sis, or child of dad's bro
phoneme meaning can be changed by altering a single significant sound
syntax meaning can be changed by arrangement
semantics meaning in a word and sentences
cultural presuppositions background knowledge assumed on the part of the speakers
connotations additional meanings that are associated with a word or phrase
Metaphor words or phrases that extend meaning by suggesting that something is like something else "My community is like a river"
Metonyms words or phrases that transfer meaning by substituting the part to mean the whole. (a count of hands)
teknonymy women losing their last name in marriage.
Rituals formal behavior composed of symbolic acts, utterances, and objects that express beliefs in important truths.
Myth a narrative often involving supernatural beings, actions, or events that express popular ideas about nature and society.
root metaphor recurring, stirring metaphor's. "mother country" or "fatherland"
key scenarios actions considered correct or successful.
semantic domains set of key words with related meanings, reveals the patterns in which its speakers think. "ladybug" is defined but not all other beetles.
ethnolinguistics studying semantic domains
Created by: carinalofgren