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MH_VICARS Module #4

Terms and Definitions

Cerebral Cortex is the thin layer of nerve tissue, know as grey matter, that covers the surface of the cerebrum
Diencephon the part of the brain that is located beteween cerebrum and the brain. the structure consists of (hypo)thalamus, and the pineal gland.
Dura Matter The most ot layer of the three membranes surrounding the brain and spinal chord.
Ganglion a knot like mass of nerve tissue found outside the brain and spinal chord.
Grey Matter* the part of the nervous system consisting of axons that are not covered with myelin sheath.
White Matter* the part of the nervous system consisting of axons coevered with myelin sheath, giving a white apperance
Gyrus/ Convulsion elevated folds of the surface of the cerebrum.
(Hypo)Thalamus the part of the brain located between cerebral hemisphers and the midbrain, recieves stimuli, and relays them to the cerebral cortex, and hypothalamus controls heat, sleep and hunger.
Kinseiology the study of muscle movement
Medulla Oblongata one of the three parts of the brain stem. it is the most essential part of the brain in that it contains the cardiac, vasomotor and respitory centers of the brain.
Afferent Nerves transmitters of nerve impulses towards the central nervous system (also known as sensory nerves).
Astrocytes a star shpaed neuroglial cell found in the central nervous system.
Efferent Nerves transmitters of nerve impulses away from the central nervous system (also known as motor nerves).
Ataxia without muscular co-ordination
Autonomic Nervous System the part of the nervous sysem that regulates involuntart vital functions of the body.
Brain Stem the stem like portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemisphere with the spinal chord.
Central Nervous System* one of two main divisions of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal chord.
Cerebrum* the largest and upper most part of the brain, controls emotions, thought, consience, learning, etc.
Cerebellum* the part of hte brain responsible for co-ordinating voluntary muscualr movement.
Dendrite* a projection that extends for the nerve cell body that thransmits information to the cell body.
Interneurons connecting neurons that conduct impulses from afferent nerves, towards motor nerves(efferent nerves).
Meninges the layer of protective membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal chord.
Microglia small, neuroglial cells found in the intestial tissue of the nervous system that engulfs watse within the nerve.
Midbrain the upper most part of the brain.
Myelin Sheath* a protective sheet that covers many nerves in the body.
Nerve a cordlike bundle of nerve fibres that transmit impulses to and from the brain and spinal chord to other parts of the body.
Neurlgia* the supporting tissue of the nervous system.
Neuritis inflammation of hte nerve.
Neuron* a nerve cell
Nerotransmitter* a chemical substance within the body that activates or inhibits the transmisison of nerve impulses between synapses.
oligodendrocyte a type of neurolglial cell found in the interstitial tissue of hte nervous system, it's dendrites projections coil around axons of many neurons to form the myelin sheath.
Peripheral Nervous System the part of the nervous system outside the central nervous system consisting of 12 cranial nerves, 31 spinal nerves.
Pia Matter the inner most layer of the three membranes surrounding the brain and spinal chord.
Pineal body(gland) a small cone-shpae structure located in the diencephalon brain, that regulates the biological vlock, produces melatonin.
Pons the part of the brain that is located between the medulla oblongata and mid-brain, it acts like a bridge to connect the medulla and the cerrebrum to the upper portions of the brain.
Receptor a sensory nerve ending.
Somatic Nervous System the part of the periperal nervous system that provides voluntary conrtol over skeletal muscles.
Arachnoid Membrane the web-like, middle layer of the three membranous layers surronding the layer
Thrombosis an abnormal condition in which a developes on a blood vessel.
Venticle a small hallow within the brain that is filled with cerebrospinal fliud
Synapse* the space between the end of one nerve and the beginning of another, through which nerve impulses are transmitted.
Brain* the largest and most complex unit of the nervous system, it is responsible for perception, sensation, emotion, intellect and action.
Acending and Desending Tracts* tracts that carry sesory information to and from the brain.
Cerebrospinal fluid* a clear colorless fliud that flows throughout the brain and around the spinal chord.
Dorsal Root one of two roots that attaches to a spinal nerve to the spinal chord
Schawann Cell* A specailized cell that forms in the myelin
Ventral Root one of two roots that attaches a spinal nerve to the spinal chord
Axon* a singe elongated projsection from the nerve cell body that transmits impulses away form the cell body.
Corpus Callosum connects right and left brian together
Circle of willis is a specailized check point and balance system that provides blood flow to the brian.
Created by: Tara_Marie
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