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Week 1 lectures

Cell of Blood

What does blood do? transportation of wastes, gases, waste products, hormones, enzymes, and nutrients. Maintains homeostasis. Important in immunity and defence
how much blood do we have and what's in it? About 5 litres (8 pints) 92% water 8% plasma proteins
What types of white blood cells are included in Granulocytes? eosinophil, basophils, and neutrophils
what types of blood cells are derived from myeloid stem cells? red blood cells, platelets and Granulocytes
What types of blood cells are derived from lymphoblasts (lymhoid stem cell derivative)? B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and natural killer cells
Before an inectious agent can penetrate the body, it must first overcome biochemical and physical barriers that operate at body surfaces. What does the first line of defence include? Saliva, tears, mucus, good "gut" bacteria, skin and stomach acid.
Define pathogens? disease causing micro-organisms. I.e bacteria fungi protozoa
What are the two types of immunity? Innate immunity and Adaptive immunity
What do cells of the innate immunity include? macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils
What is the most prevalent white blood cell? neutrophils
Describe the main features of Neutrophils Multi-lobed nucleus and cytoplasmic granules Die within 5 days due to apoptosis Leaves the blood and is first to arrive at the site of infection active phagocyte cells Lytic enzymes and bacterial substances are contained within granules and kill bact
Describe the main features of Eosinophils Bilobed nucleus and granules that stains with the acid dye eosin red. <1% of blood leukocytes. Migrate from blood into tissues. Number increases dring parasitic infections and allergic reactions.
Describe the main features of Basophils? lobed nucleus and granulated cytoplasm that stains with the basic dye methylene blue. <0.2% of blood leukocytes, non phagocytic and function by releasing active substances from membrane bound cytoplasmic granules. Blood bourne mast cell?
Describe the main features of mast cell? Precursors formed in bone marrow and released into the blood as undifferentiated cells. Differentiate into mast cells on entering tissue. In skin, connective tissues and respiratory, GI system. release of granules containing histamine +other substances.
Describe the main features of monocytes/macrophages? Macrophages consume pathogens and tissue debris, and activate T lymphocytes-antigen presentation. "the dustbin", samples the environment.
what type of cells act as messengers between innate and adaptive immunity? Dentritic cells
Dendritic cells dendritic cells(DC)"eat" antigen and are important in antigen presentation to T cells. Are profession antigen presenting cells. Classified by their location i,e langerhan cells in skin
What cells are part of the adaptive immune system? Lymphocytes and NK cells
Lymphocytes Can be subdivided into T and B cells. small, motile and non-phagocytic. Proliferate in activation.
B cells Develop in the bursa of fabricius in birds hence called B cells. Name apt as bone marrow is major site of production and maturation of B cells in mammals. Mature cells have membrane-bound immunoglobulin on their surface which recognises antigen
T cells T lymphocyte mature in the thymus. T cell receptor complex on surface, part of which (CD3) identifies these cells>
What are T cells subdivided into by expression of? of two surface molecules, CD4 which function as T helper cells or CD8 which are T cytotoxic cells.
Natural killer cells? lymphocytes in peripheral blood have none of the classical T cell markers. Most of these cells are large granular lymphocytes called natural killer cells. 5-10% in peripheral blood. Help kill virus-infected cells and cancer cells.
what are the primary lymphoid organs? bone marrow and thymus
what are the secondary lymphoid organs? lymph nodes and spleen
Lymphoid organs are interconnected by? blood and lymphatic vessels through which lymphocytes circulate. All major bones contain marrow and are part of the lymphoid system
Lymph nodes Lymph drains from tissues. collects antigen from periphery. Site of immune response activation Meeting place for acquired immune responses
Spleen Reservoir of RBCs and WBCs. Like the oil filter in car. Collects blood bourne antigens.
Created by: Taryn Miller