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SS11 - Chapter 13

Counterpoints Chapter 13 Terms & Names

QuestionAnswer
Biosphere Regions of Earth occupied by living organisms, made up of all the ecozones.
stewardship The careful management of resources to ensure that they are sustainable.
bitumen A black viscous mixture of hydrocarbons obtained naturally or as a residue from petroleum distillation.
permafrost The artic subsoil that remains frozen all year long.
Northwest Passage A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through the Arctic Archipelago of northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Reduced ice cover is making this route a possible year-round navigation route.
carrying capacity The largest population that an environment can support.
deforestation The process of destroying a forest and replacing it with something else.
arable land A geographical term from Latin (arare, to plough), meaning land that can be used for growing crops.
global warming The observed and projected increase in the earth's average temperature due to burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.
ecology the science concerned with the relationship between living things and their environment.
Acid precipitation any form of precipitation that is high in sulfuric and nitric acids as a result of pollution in the air.
Location of most of Canada's oil sands Northern Alberta
Sustainable development a way to maintain economic growth without damaging the environment.
Earth Summit a meeting of world leaders, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, to discuss environmental changes and sustainable development.
Agenda 21 a statement of environmental action, produced in 1992 that outlined actions that should be taken to protect the planet and achieve sustainable development.
herbicides substances used to kill plants.
pesticides substances used to kill pests such as unwanted plants and animals.
organic grown or produced without chemical fertilizers or pesticides.
C02 emissions this greenhouse gas (GHG) is caused by burning fossil fuels; largest contributor to global warming.
biodiversity having a variety of life forms.
ecotourism tourism to threatened areas that tries to be low-impact and small-scale.
watersheds river basins drained by a river and flowing into the same large body of water.
groundwater Water beneath the earth's surface, often between saturated soil and rock, that supplies wells and springs.
surface water water that is readily available on Earth's surface in streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands, and oceans.
wastewater water that has been used in homes or industries and, as a result, contains waste products.
watermilfoil weed a plant that grows and spreads quickly, choking out native plants, affecting spawning areas for fish, and posing a safety problem if it grows around public beaches.
aquifer an underground layer of rock, gravel, etc., from which water can be drawn for wells and which is a source of springs.
Carbon footprint total amount of carbon dioxide CO2 and other greenhouse gases emitted over the full life cycle of a product or service.
troposphere the lowest level of Earth's atmosphere.
greenhouse gas (GHG) various gases in the atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation, including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.
Ultraviolet radiation (UV) invisible ryas from the sun that can cause skin cancer.
ozone layer a thin layer in the atmosphere 15-30 kilometres above Earth; it filters the sun's UV rays.
CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) chemicals used in coolants, solvents, and aerosol cans that damage the ozone layer.
Montreal Protocol an international agreement signed in 1987 to phase out the ozone-depleting chemicals CFCs
peatlands wetlands with soil formed mostly from decomposing plants.
greenhouse effect the trapping of heat in the atmosphere, causing Earth's temperature to rise.
carbon sink a reservoir that can absorb and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, including forests, peat, and oceans.
meltwater melted snow or ice, including ice from glaciers
runoff water from rain and melting snow that cannot be held in the soil so makes its way into streams, rivers, lakes and oceans.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) the UN's plan to keep greenhouse gas concentrations from increasing, created at the Earth Summit in 1992.
Kyoto Protocol a 1997 international agreement that set binding targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions; the average target is 5 percent of 1990 levels by 2012.
carbon credit if an organization produces more greenhouse gases than it is allowed, it can purchase a credit from an organization that is below its target emission levels. Also known as a "cap & trade"
carbon sequestration CO2 is collected and shipped to a geologically suitable area below layers of impermeable rock. Storage areas might be depleted fossil fuel reservoirs.
Greenpeace An environmental non-governmental organization (NGO) that works to promote sustainable development and the preservation of nature. Founded in Vancouver, 1971.
Biofuels A fuel derived directly from living matter. Ethanol (derived from sugar cane) is an example.
Northern Gateway The name given to a proposed Embridge pipeline that will ship Alberta crude oil to Kitimat, BC for export to China.
Silent Spring Title of Rachel Carson's 1962 seminal book on the impact of chemicals on the natural environment.
Created by: pklassen