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REL 2300

Midterm 3

hybridity the melding of indigenous practices with other religions-particularly Christianity and Islam
cosmogony models of the origins of the universe and their purpose within it, as well as a working knowledge of their own bioregion
lifeway a particular approach to all of life ; In most native cultures, spiritual lifeways are shared orally; The people create and pass on songs, proverbs, myths, riddles, short sayings, legends, art, music, and the like.
characteristics of indigenous religions Diversity, most indigenous traditions tend to be oral societies (still have texts in the form of ritual practices and narratives), engagement in the spiritual world
mana the power of spirit that is believed to be highly concentrated
shaman a Siberian term for those who offer themselves as mystical intermediaries between the physical and the nonphysical world for specific purposes, such as healing.
yoruba religion African religion in the region of West Africa in Benin and Nigeria
olodumare/olorun the yoruban high God; delegates much of the day to day aspect to spiritual beings called Orishas
orishas embodiments of the dynamic forces in life; divine beings who were present with Olodumare at creation, personifications of nature forces (like rivers or mountains), and deified ancestors
yoruba conceptions of human beings Divine qualities, just like Orishas have human characteristics; Ara (physical body); Emi (two souls associated with breath); Ori (soul associated with destiny) means “head” but associated with one’s destiny which is animated by ashe
yoruba afterlife Believe that human beings are reincarnated life after life; Before rebirth-one of our souls appears to Olodumare to receive new breath; Allowed to choose the destiny of our next life, including the day of death
characteristics of lakota religion conceived of a universe permeated by a type of mana called Wakan; Do not believe that the Earth belongs to Human beings; buffalo had sacred power to connect to; visions are important;
dreamtime/dreaming the primordial time when the ancestors appeared from beneath the surface of the earth, investing the environment with their own presence and establishing the law;
totemism Important facet of aboriginal religion- an animal or plant that is the representation of the tribe or spiritual beings; establishes social identity
nongqawuse An African woman that had a vision from God that if her people killed all the cattle, the British would leave their village alone and leave; afterwards, God would bring back all the cattle; but it failed
the ghost dance movement By performing the dance, the buffalo would return and so would dead Indians; The wicked whites would be removed, and the past would be reborn;
wovoka Leader of the 1889 Ghost Dance movement; called the Son of the Great Spirit
wounded knee The Seventh Calvary was sent in to arrest Wovoka but when a gunshot (possibly) went off, open fired occurred and 6/7 of the Indians died
the lost generation a generation of children who were taken away from their aboriginal parents and were often abused or used as slaves in Australia
the sun dance Highly sacred dance that requires the dancer to do vision quests, purify themselves in sweat lodges; dancer continue to participate in sweat lodges each day of the dance; Piercing the skin is seen as making their prayers more sincere
confucianism a school of thought that emphasizes the cultivation of moral virtues and the interaction between human rulers and Heaven, with political involvement as the way to transforming the world
confucius proposed that the rulers should perform classical rites and music properly so that they would remain of visibly high moral character and thus inspire the common people to be virtuous; Felt that return to classical rites and standards of virtue was needed
tian heaven; more impersonal power controlling the universe
five relationships parent and child, older and younger siblings, husband and wife, ruler and subject, and friend and friend
the analects Part of the Four Books in Confucianism which formed the core of Confucian Education
neo-confucianism the revised version during the Song dynasty that was revised on the premise that Buddhism and Daoism had brought moral and thus political weakness into Chinese society.
daoism concerned with direct experience of the universe, accepting and cooperating with things, as they are, not with setting standards of morality, not with labeling things as good or bad.
the daodejing The book’s central philosophy is a practical concern with improving harmony in life; It says one can best harmonize with the natural flow of life by being receptive and quiet.
the dao the “unnamable,” the “eternally real"; One is to experience the transcendent unity of all things, rather than separation; It can only be attained when one ceases to feel any personal preferences.
wuwei actionless action or taking no intentional or invasive action contrary to the natural flow of things
daoist schools In the Way of Orthodox Unity there is the introduction of divinities, especially in the deification of Laozi; Complete Perfection mixes Daoism, Chan (Zen) Buddhism, and Neo-Confucianism and the dominant school in China
daoist alchemy individual spiritual practices for the sake of inner transformation, self-cultivation, longevity, and perhaps immortality; The aim is to use the energy available to the body in order to become strong and healthy and to perceive the order of the universe
joseph smith the founder of the mormonism; translated the book of mormon; moved west to found the religion's Zion but was killed; successor: brigham young
first vision two people appeared to Smith while he was praying and told him that all the churches were wrong, their creeds were abominations, their leaders were corrupt, and not to join any of them.
moroni an angel who was the last of a great race of Nephites (descendants of the ancient Hebrews). Moroni led Smith to a nearby hill where he found a book written on golden plates
the book of mormon smith translated the golden plates using the urim and thummim with the help of his family and close friends
reorganized latter day saints the smaller group that stayed in the Midwest as separate congregations and were reorganized in 1860. They believe that Smith had not authorized plural marriage and that Smith’s son was the rightful leader of the Church.
brigham young smith's successor who originally rejected polygamy but ultimately had 55 or so wives; moved the church to it's zion of salt lake city
the mormon battalion US Government asked the church to form a battalion on their journey to Deseret (area outside of US control), they did and it was the first officially religious one; never saw battle
mountain meadows massacre Federal government was mad that Young was acting like a dictator so they sent troops to Utah territory, many people were killed while traveling through to California because they thought they were troops, Young was removed from being governor
baptism for the dead (proxy) baptizing the dead who did not get a chance to hear the book of Mormon so that the dead may be connected to the living in the afterlife.
celestial marriage a marriage that is valid for all eternity and survives after death
degrees of glory Outer Darkness - Satan and his helpers. Telestial - reserved for gospel/jesus rejectors, liars, adulterers. Terrestrial - reserved for baptized non-mormons who lived good lives. Celestial - reserved for mormons in good standing
plural marriage The mainstream Church denounces polygamy and claims it will excommunicate anyone found to be practicing polygamy
mormon fundamentalism the smallest group of Mormons that started in the 1930s because of common beliefs such as that the mainstream Church had strayed from God, that plural marriage is a revelation from God, and that the priesthood is an intricate part of church authority
apocalypticism describing or prophesying the complete destruction of the world
characteristics of apocalyptic christianity Tend to have extreme notions of a restoration of early Christianity; Distinct ideas about what will happen in the end times; See themselves as connected to Jewish antiquity; Frequently very dualistic (good vs evil)
charles taze russel originally started the bible students to study the bible's prophetic literature but eventually came to the idea that Jesus was coming back to set up an earthly kingdom and 144,000 would go to heaven.
judge joseph rutherford Russel's successor who set up a monitoring system to make sure its members were spending appropriate amounts of time evangelizing, and to missionize other countries
jehovah's witnesses developed in US, no blood transfusions, rejection of trinity, no idols or crosses, Jesus was crucified on a “torture stake”, Lord’s Evening Meal once a year
new world translation Witnesses own version of the bible that is modified to include Witness doctrine like exclusive use of the name “Jehovah
kingdom halls the name for the church's congregational buildings; very simple auditorium with a place for literature
L. ron hubbard became interested in how the mind worked and developed a theory about it while he was "exempt" from WWII. He died when he "willingly dropped his body into another dimension"
dianetics gets rid of the unwanted sensations, unpleasant emotions, and psychosomatic ills that block one’s life and happiness”; It is also a route to a wall, happy, high IQ human being
auditing The goal is a “win” or a moment of revelation and one cannot leave an auditing session until achieving a win over the mind's engrams (unknowing and unwarranted fears that keep us from living a happy life)
the clear free of the mind's engrams
scientology is said to mean the study of truth or knowledge about knowledge; The official position of the Church is that it is not a religion about space aliens but a set of beliefs to live a better life.
operating thetan One who can handle things without having to use a body or physical means – or one who controls MEST(Matter.Energy.Space.Time) and is not controlled by it
cult/sect Cult – represents a distinct break from other traditions; Sect – a splinter group or a subgroup associated with a larger tradition
unification movement God created the universe in order to manifest true love, and the human family is considered the primary institution for the growth of love; to unite the world under one umbrella of love/religion
baha'i attempts to unite all of humanity in the belief that there is only one God, the foundation of all religions; believe that God is unknowable; the goal is to end all prejudice; believe all the messengers of other religions are manifestations of God
rastafari the dream of returning blacks to Africa so they can rebuild a great civilization; Rastafarians wear their hair in long uncombed curls, called dreadlocks, a lion-like main symbolizing the natural nonindustrial life to revolt against Babylon
opposition to new religious movements Negative description (cults), not recognizing it, forced conversion into (brainwashing), force conversion out of (deprogramming), indoctrination, socialization, laws, and vigilantism.
audience cult do not require conversion and allow their followers great flexibility
client cult offer some kind of service, usually some kind of therapy
cult movement a full-fledged organization that requires conversion and does not allow dual allegiances to other organizations
Created by: JacobGant



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