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History Exam 3

Which dynasty brought unity to China? Quin
Which dynasty does Shi Huangdi belong to? Quin
Who slaughtered scholars and burned books in their brutal rule? Shi Huangdi
What dynasty directly proceeded the Quin? Han
Under which dynasty does Emporer Wu belong? Han
Which emporer eleveated Confusionism to schools? Emporer Wu
Following 3 centuries of disorder, stabilty returned under what 2 dynasties? Sui and Tang
WHat was significant about the Tang dynasty? Unique reign of empress Wu
What 3 things illustrate the sophistication of the Chinese? Gunpowder Paper money and Buereaucratic reform
What is the key to chinese culture? Civil service exam-selecting talent for leadership rather than blood
What were 2 key narratives in Japanese culture by Izanagi and Izanami? Nihon Shoki and Kojiki
Who was the earliest Japanese emporer? Jimmu
Who was Jimmu a descendent of? Sun godess
What does the name Jimmu mean? Divine Warrior
What is key to understanding Japan? limited arable land
What is shintoism? the way of the gods. It is a worldview focusing on the sun godess
When did Buddhism reach Japan? 538
What are 5 characteristics of Japanese culture? 1. Balance with nature 2. Restraint in showing emotion 3.delecite precision 4. economy 5. utilization of space and resources
Who was a great persecuter of Christians in the 3rd century? Diocletian
Who established the doctrine of the trinity? tertulian
who gave grudging toleration to Christianity? Galacius and constantine
What was the edict of milan? Gave full legal equality with restoration of church property?
Who called the council of nicea? Constantine
What happened at the council of nicea? Church defined the divinity of Jesus
Who made christianity the state religion? Theodocious
Who was saint augustine? Great western theologan
What were 2 things that Saint Augustine declared? city of God-Gods kingdom transcendence and confession
Who began the Pax Romana and who did it end with? Octavian began it Marcus Arelius ended it
What was the key factor to the fall of Rome? No reinvestment: Gap between rich and poor
Under whom did the Germanic invasions peak? Visigoth leader Alarac and his sack of Rome (marking the traditional end of the western Roman empire)
What were some significances of the barbarian migration? - Shattered the centralized western Roman Empire - Codified Roman law and the emergence of tribal law - Shatters communication - Shattered trade and economy - Fragmentation led to increased localization and the eventual rise of Feudalism
Def Great wall A rammed-earth fortification built along the northern border of China during the reign of the first emporer
Def Confusian classics The ancient texts recovered during the han dynasty that the Confusians treated as sacred scriptures
Def Records of the Grand Historian A comprehensive history of China written by Sima Quian
Def Silk Road THe trade routes across central asia through which chinese silk and other items were traded
Def Tributary system A system first established during the Han dynasty to regulate contact with foreign powers. States and tribes beyond its borders sent envoys bearing gifts and recieved gifts in return
Def Eunichs Castrated males who played an important role as palace servants
Def Age of Division The period after the Han dynasty when China was politically divided
Def Grand Canal A canal built during the Sui Dynasty that connected the Yellow and Yangzi rivers. Notable for strengthening Chinas internal cohesian and economic development
Def pure land A school of Buddhism that taught that by calling on Buddha Amitabha and his chief helper, one could achieve rebirth in paradise
Def Chan A school of Buddhism that rejected the authority of the sutras and claimed the superioritt of mind to mind transmission of Buddhist truths
Def Shinto The way of the gods. it was the native religion espoused by the Yamato rulers in Japan
Def Nara Japan's capital and first true city established in 710 and modeled on the Tang capital of Chang'an
Def Corpus Juris Civilis The 'body if civil law" composed of the code the digest and the institutes
Def dioceses Geographic administrative districts of the church each under the authority of a bishop and centered around a cathedral
def Arianism A theological belief originating with Arius(a priest in alexandria) that denied that Christ was co-eternal with God the Father
def popes Heads of the Roman Catholic church who became political as well as religious authorities
def pontiface period of pope's term in office
Def orthodox Church Another name for the eastern christian church over whoch emporers continued to have power
Def iconoclastic controversy The contradiction over the veneration of religious images in the Byzantine Empire
Def sacraments Certain rituals of the church believed to act as conduit of God's grace such the eucharist and baptism
Def penance Ritual in which christians asked a priest for forgiveness for sins and the priest set certain actions to atone for sins
def Saints People who were venerated for haveing lived or died in a way that was spiritually heroic or noteworthy
def wergeld Compensatory payment for death or injury set in many barbarian law codes
Def merovingian A dynasty founded in 481 by the frankish chieftain Clovis in what is now france. Merovingian derives from Merovech the name of the semi-legendary leader from whom Clovis claimed descent
Def Carolingian A dynasty of rulers that took over the frankish kingdom from the Merovingians in the 7th century. Carolingian derives from the latin word for Charles the name of several members of the dynasty
Who was the most powerful ruler of the Carolingians? Charlemenge
def treaty of Verdun A treaty ratified in 843 that divided Charlemegne's territories amoung his 3 surviving grandsons their kingdoms set the patterns for France, Germany, and Italy
Def Qu'ran The sacred book of islam
Def hadith Collections of sayings and anctecdotes about Muhammad
Def sunna An arabic term meaning trodden path. Refers to the saying and deeds of Muhammad which constitute the obligitory example for muslim life
def five pillars of islam The basic tenents of the islamic faith
List the five pillars of islam 1. Profession of faith "There is no god but god and muhammad is his prophet" 2. Praying 5 times a day 3. Fasting at certain times (ex Ramadan) 4. Giving alms to the poor 5. Pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca once if possible
Def umma A community of people who share a religious faith/commitmentment rather than a tribal tie
def diwan a unit of goverment
def imam The leader in community prayer
def Shia Arabic term meaning supporters of ali. Make up one of 2 main divisions of islam.
def sunnis Members of the largest group of muslims who accepted Mu'awiya as caliph and insisted that central issue was adhearing to beliefs of umma based on Muhammad
Def ulama a group of religious scholars whom sunnis trust to interpret the Quran and the Sunna
def emirs Arab governors who were given overall responsibility for public order, maintenance of military, and tax collection
Def sharia Muslim law which covers social, politica, criminal, and religious matters
Def vizer The caliph's chief assistant
def dhimmis A term meaning "protected people" they include jews, christians, and zoroastrians
def madrassa a school for the study of muslim law and religious science
def Mozarabs Christians who adopted some Arabic customs but did not convert
def Hamitic thesis A ninteenth century concept tied to scientific racism that a subgroup of the caucasian race, the Hamites, brought superior technology and knowledge to africa in the ancient past. now completely discredited
def Bantu Speakers of a Bantu language living south and east of the Congo river
def Sudan The african region surrounded by the sahara, gulf of guinea, atlantic ocean, and mountains of ethiopia
Def berbers North african peoples who controlled the caravan trade between the meditranian and the sudan
Def Mogadishu A muslim port city in East Africa founded between the 8th and 10th centuries. Today it is the capital of Somalia
Def stateless societies African societies bound together by ethnic or blood ties rather than political states
Def Ghana From the word for ruler, the name of a large and influential african kingdom inhabited by the Soninke people
Def Koumbi Saleh The city in which the king of Ghana held his court
Def Timbuktu Originally a campsite for desert nomads, it grew into a thriving city under mansa musa
Who was mansa musa? King of Mali and Africa's most famous ruler
Def Aksum A kingdom in northwestern Ethiopia that was a sizable trading state and center of Christian culture
Def Swahili The east african coastal culture named after a Bantu language whose vocabulary and poetic forms exhibit strong Arabic influences
def Kilwa The most powerful city on the east coast of africa by the late 13th century
def Great Zimbabwe A ruined South African city discovered by a german explorer in 1871. Considered the most powerful monument south of the Nile Valley and Ethiopian highlands
Def Byzantium Old Eastern Roman Empire
When was Muhammad born and where? 570 medina
Def KaBah Cubical structure in Mecca built by Abraham to celebrate the glory of the One God
What was the religious state during Muhammad's time? Idol worship and animism
What happened to Muhammad in 610? Saw an archangeal Gabriel who revealed god's word to him in 3 fold calling.
What does Islam mean? Peacefull submission (to god's will)
What happened to muhammad in 622? Muhammad was expelled and migrated(hijrah) to medina. Begining of Muslim calandar
Where was the first islamic society established? Medina
What does Caliph mean and who were the Caliphs in order? Sucessor 1. Abu Bakr 2. Umar 3. Uthman 4. Ali
Who was the end of the rightly guided caliphs? Ali
What does Jihad mean? Holy endeavor
What was the key to Islam? Nature of spreading was military not wanton killing
When did islam cross the strait of Gibraltar? 711
What was the most important event in this area as far as the relationship between Islam and western world? Crusades
Why was their civil war under the Umayyad dynasty? refusal to acknowledge Ali
Under the Umayyad Dynasty what happened to the caliphate? became hereditary
When Abbasid Caliphate emerged in mid 8th century where was the capital moved to? Bagdad
What were the 4 major power bases of decentralized islam? Codoba, khurasan, egypt, and tunisia
What tension led to the crusades? Seljuk Turks agrassive take of control in late 10th century
What is key in sub-saharan africa? Geography
What is East africa called? Cradle of humanity
What are some root languages? Bantu &arabic
What made up Nok culture? Gardeners/iron workers
Where were the 2 major migrations? 1. Eastward then south around rainforest. HUGE. 2. Straight through rainforest
What 2 factors contributed to migration? agriculture and iron
Describe the Bantu culture Authority in village by elders, predominantly patriarchal, economy, value system
What are the 3 empires of western Sudan? 1. Ghana 2. Mali 3. Songhai
What is the tripod of Ghana? 1. Military 2.Sophisticated government 3. Extensive taxation
Who was the key figure in Ghana? Kaya Maghan. Great warrior led against Berbers
What was the government like in Ghana? Highly centralized with local officials
Where was most of the wealth found at in Ghana? Agriculture- sophisticated irrigation and Gold trade
Who was the first leader of Mali? Sundiata
What 2 things was Mansa Musa famous for? 1. Encouraged Islam and order
What were the key elements to all 3 great kingdoms? 1. Embraced or traded with Islamic culture(slave trade) 2. found wealth in gold 3. Sophisticated governments and societies
Who relocated the Japanese capital to Heian? Emperor Kammu
Who forved the emperor to grant him as shogun? Yoritomo
What was a shogun? Gave loyalty to emperor but essencially ran the show
What were 2 differences between Japan and Europe? Agricultural methods lagging and shortage of metals did not keep up with military
Created by: jessie4393