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Human Geo quiz/final

definitions

QuestionAnswer
Demography The study of population, numbers,trends,and issues
Census The process of collecting,compiling,and publishing demographic,economic,and social data about all the people living in a particular area.
Developed Country A country with a highly developed economy and infrastructure and high living standards
Developing Country A country with a less sophisticated economy and lower standard of living than developed countries;may have extensive poverty
Birth Rate The number of Births per 1000 people in a country in a given year
Death Rate The number of deaths per 1000 people in a country in a given year
Demographic Transition Model A model that shows Changes in a population's birth and death rates and growth based on technological development
Industrialisation The overall change in a society from farm production and crafts-man-ship to mechanised manufacturing production
Urbanisation The move of people from farms to cities where jobs are available
Mortality Deaths in a population
Immigration Rate The number of new animals in a country in a given year per 1000 people
Emigration Rate The number of people leaving a country in a given year per 1000 people
Natural Increase(NI) The rate at which a population increases (or decreases) in a year expressed as a percentage of the total population,calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate
Exponential Rate A rapid rate of population growth as each generation doubles in size
Rule Of 70 The time it takes a country to double its population,approximately 70 divided by the country's growth rate
Doubling Time The number of years it takes a country to double its population at it current growth rate
Net Migration The difference between the number of people immigrating to a country and the number of people emigrating
Migrant A person who moves from one region to another
Life Expectancy The average number of years an individual is expected to live
Family Planning The concept of limiting the size of families
Rhythm Method A method of birth control in which a couple does not have intercourse during the time when a woman is likely to ovulate
Sterilisation A procedure by which a person's ability to reproduce is destroyed
Vasectomy A form of male sterilisation in which the tube carrying sperm from each testis is cut and tied
Coercion The use of force
Contraception Birth control
Total Fertility Rate The average number of children born over the lifetime of a typical woman in a particular country
One-Child Policy A policy adopted by China to control population growth
Infanticide The act of killing an infant
Gender Selection The choice of whether to keep a fetus based on its gender
Nutritional Density A measure of how much nutrition in calories can be produced from a certain area;an area with fertile soil and adequate temperatures and precipitation will have higher nutritional density than an area such as Canada's North
Population Growth Rate The rate at which a country's population increases or decreases; calculated by adding natural increase and net migration
Dependency Ratio The proportion of the population( children and those over 65 years of age)that is being supported by this working age group
Dependency Load The percentage of a population that is younger than 15 or older than 64 years of age
Population Distribution The pattern of where people live in an area
Ecumene The populated area of the world
Population Density The number of people living in a given area;calculated by dividing the population by its area
Population Pyramid A Bar Graph that shows male and female populations back to back at age intervls for five years back at age intervals of five years
Age Cohort An age group in a population,for example,the number of people between the ages of 10 and 14
Neo-Malthusians People who share Malthus' pessinimistic views regarding population growth
Carrying Capacity The maximum number of people that can be sustained by an environment
Ecological Footprint The impact of humans on the environment
Cornucopians People who have optimistic views on population growth due to advances in science and technologhy
Demographic Regulation The theory that population growth will level off as living standards improve
Infrastructure Structures such as roads,railways,power grids, and communications links that are basic to the functioning of a modern economy, as well as buildings such as schools and hospitals
Developed Countries The world's wealthiest countries;they have well-established infrasructure and their people are well-housed,healthy,and have good literacy skills
Newly Industrialising Countries Countries that are experiencing rapid economic and industiral growth; many are switching from agricultral to industrial economies
Developing Countries Countries that have lower standards of living than develoed countries; many have extensive poverty
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries(HIPCs) Countries at the low end of the UN Humand Development Index that are in debt to developed nations
Human Development Index The UN's index used to rank standards of living in its memeber countries
Standard Of Living A measure comparing how well people live in different countries based on 3 indicators;life expectancy,literacy rate,and gross domestic product(GDP)per capita
Literacy Rate The percentage of a population that is able to read and write
Non-Governmental Organisations(NGOs) Non-profit local,national,or international groups that work independentlyof government on issuues such as health, the environmnt, or human rights
Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) Eight goals developed by the meber states of the United Nations to close the gap in living standars between developed and developing countries
Mortality Death rate,calculated as number of deaths per 1000 in a population
Malnutirtion Poor,or lack of nourishment
Globalisation The spread of ideas,informstion, and culture around the world through advances in communication, technology, and travel
Multinational Corporations(MNCs) Companies that do business in more than one country
World Bank An internationalgorup of five financial institutions that provide financial and technical help to developing countries
Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development(OCED) Originally created as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation(OECD) to administer the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe after the second worl war ;OCEDA's mission is to improve living standards in developing countries
Bilateral Aid Assistance from one country to another
Subsistence Farmimg A f orm of farming in which the crops grown are used to feed the farmr and his or her family , with little or nithing left over to sell or trade
Created by: Ama B