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Fund of Disease Ch15

Fund of Disease Chapter 15--Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System

Osteomyelitis(myel/o--bone marrow) is an inflammation of bone & bone marrow
A common cause of osteomyelitis is staph(staphylococci) aureus
Signs & symptoms of osteomyelitis include 1.Pain 2.Chills 3.Pyrexia(fever) 4.Leukocytosis(elevated white blood count)
Osteomyelitis is a common complication of an open FX(fracture) AKA compound FX
A complication of osteomyelitis is bone necrosis(death) called sequestrum
The Osteomyelitis infection responds well to antibiotics
TuBerculosis (TB) is primarily a disease of the lungs
Pulmonary TB(TuBerculosis) left untreated can spread to the bones
Pott's disease is TB(TuBerculosis) that affects the vertebral column of children
Pott's disease can lead to vertebral deformities and paralysis
Vertebral deformities caused by Pott's disease may lead to surgical correction
TB(TuBerculosis) reponds well to antibiotics(INH)
Rickets is a disease affecting infants and young children
Rickets is caused by a deficiency of Ca(Calcium) and/or vitamin D
The bones of the child with rickets are soft & tend to bend causing deformities(bow legged or knock-kneed)
The child's muscles are flaccid(limp) with Ricket's because muscles need Ca(Calcium) for proper muscle contraction
With Ricket's teething may be delayed and there is a characteristic of pot belly
Rickets is associated with malabsorption syndrome(inability to absorb fat soluble vitamins A,D,E & K)
The most common prophylaxis(preventative) and Tx(treatment) for rickets is sunlight(10 min/day) and the RDA(Recommended Daily Allowance) of Ca(Calcium) with Vitamin D
OsteoMalacia(OM) is a softening(malacia) and decalcification of the bones in adults
The bones particularly affected by OM(OsteoMalacia-bone softening) include the vertebral column, pelvis & legs
The bones with OM/OsteoMalacia tend to bend, deform and FX(fracture) easily
OM/OsteoMalacia is associated with malabsorption syndrome(inability to absorb fat soluble vitamins A,D,E & K)
The most common prophylaxis(preventative) and Tx (treatment) for OM/OsteoMalacia is sunlight(10min/day) and the RDA(Recommended Daily Allowance) of Ca(Calcium) w/ vitamin D (2-3 daily servings)
Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, MS(Multiple Sclerosis), OP(OsteoPorosis), heart disease, DM(Diabetes Mellitus) and HTN(HyperTensioN/high blood pressure)
Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica (OFC) usually results from hyperparathyroidism which causes bone decalcification
Signs & symptoms of OFC(Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica) include nephrolithiasis(kidney stones), bone deformities & spontaneous FXs(fractures)
Tx of OFC(Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica) includes removal of parathyroid tumor or parathyroidectomy
OsteoPorosis (OP) is a loss or thinning of BMD(Bone Mineral Density) AKA osteopenia(deficiency of bone)
Risk factors of OP (OsteoPorosis) include Females 80% >Family hx >Deficient vit D +/or Ca/Calcium>Sedentary lifesyle(disuse atrophy)>Smoking >Thin/small frame>1-2 ETOH drinks/day doubles risk of OP >Excessive caffeine consumption>Being White/Asian>Estrogen level reduce>Prolong SAIDs
The degree of OP(OsteoPorosis) risk also depends on amount of BMD(Bone Mineral Density) acquired between ages 25-35
Signs & symptoms of OP(OsteoPorosis) include 1.A predisposition of FXs(fractures) especially the wrists, pelvis, & vertabrae(compression FX(fractures) 2.Kyphosis(hunch back) 3.Loss of HT(Height)
Dx(diagnosis) of OP(OsteoPorosis) depends on Patient hx(history), bone densitometry and DEXA(dual energy X-ray absorptiometry)
Tx(treatment) of OP(OsteoPorosis) includes 1.Sunlight & 500mg x 3 daily of Ca(Calcium) with vitamin D(do not exceed 2500mg/day) 2.Regular exercise 3.ERT(Estrogen Replacement Therapy) AKA HRT(Hormone Replacement Therapy) for postmenopausal women 4.The use of calcitonin(Miacalcin)in extreme cases
Bone density tests are recommended for the following 1.Type I DM(Diabetes Mellitus) 2.Liver or kidney disease 3.Menopause 4.Over age 50
Paget's disease is AKA osteitis deformans
Paget's disease is an idiopathic(unknown disease) possible genetic overproduction of abnormal bone tissue
Signs & Symptoms of Paget's disease include 1.Osteomalacia(bone softening) 2.Easy FXs(fractures) 3.Deformities of the legs 4.Abnormal curvatures in the vertebral column(scoliosis)
A complication of Paget's disease is OS(Osteogenic Sarcoma) which is a primary bone malignancy
The most common benign bone tumor is an osteoma
an osteoma can be asymptomatic(no symptoms)
A primary bone malignancy is called an osteogenic sarcoma(OS) complication of Paget's disease
OS (osteogenic sarcoma) is more common in young adults(18-35 year olds)
If pain, decreased mobility or swelling occurs with osteoma then surgery is performed to remove the tumor
A common sign of OS(Osteogenic Sarcoma) is easy FXs(fractures)
Tx for OS (Osteogenic sarcoma) includes 1.Chemotherapy(antineoplastics) 2.Surgical removal of a tumor(possible amputation of the affected limb)
Most commonly, malignant bone tumors are secondary tumors that have metastasized(spread) from another site
Secondary bone tumors cause easy FXs(knees) and extreme pain
The Px(Prognosis) for a secondary bone malignancy is poor
Arthritis is an inflammation of a joint(s)
Arthritic symptoms include pain, edema(swelling) and stiffness of the joints especially upon waking
Joints commonly affected by arthritis include lumbar vertebrae, hips, knees, and fingers
Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA) is considered an autoimmune and genetic
Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA) is the most serious form of arthritis can cause contractures (flexion & fixation of joints)
Signs & symptoms of RA (rheumatoid arthritis) include pain, edema(swelling), erythema(redness), warmth, and stiffness of the joints especially on waking
RA(Rheumatoid Arthritis) is systemic so it can affect all of the joints
RA(Rheumatoid Arthritis) can cause scar tissue to fuse the ends of the bones causing immobility(crippling)
RA(Rheumatoid Arthritis) can cause enlargement of the joints called rheumatoid nodules
Tx for RA(rheumatoid arthritis) includes 1.ROM(range of motion) exercises 2.Rest 3.NSAIDs(non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/celebrex) 4.Enrel, Orencia, Humira, & Simponi (innumosuppressants)
Foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids can reduce swelling, stiffness, & pain
OsteoArthritis(OA) is the most common form of arthritis & can accompany age
OA(OsteoArthritis) commonly affectsx joints in the fingers, neck, low back, knees, & hips
Other causes of OA(OsteoArthritis) include 1.chronic irritation or injury 2.heredity 3.obesity(knees & hip)
The primary symptoms of OA(OsteoArthritis) are pain & stiffness of the joint(s)
OA(OsteoArthritis) can cause DJD(Degenerative Joint Disease) causing irregular bone deposits called spurs
There is no cure for OA (OsteoArthritis) but the Tx includes 1.ROM (range of motion) exercises 2.Rest 3.Heat therapy 4.Vitamin D,C,E and beta carotene 5.green tea 6.SAIDs & NSAIDs 7.THR (total hip replacement) & TKR (total knee replacement)
Gout is a form of arthritis that usually afffects great toes and is caused by hyperuricemia(blood condition of excessive uric acid) causing deposits of uric acid crystals in the joints & kidneys
The onset of gout is usually sudden and freqently affects men over the age of 40
Complications of gout include 1.joint deformities 2.kidney damage
Tx for gout include 1.refrain from consuming organ meat, anchovies, sardines & beer 2.Antigout medication (uloric)
Carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS) is caused by compression of the median/middle nerve in the wrist
CTS(carpal tunnel syndrome) is more common in women & usually strikes around ages 35-40
Signs & symptoms of CTS(carpal tunnel syndrome) include numbness and tingling in the hand progressing to pain that can radiate up the arm to the shoulder(especially at night)
CTS(Carpal tunnel syndrome) is a RSI(repetitive strain injury)
CTS(carpal tunnel syndrome) usually develops when a wrist is kept in a flexed position for extended periods to perform repetitive tasks
High risk groups for CTS(Carpal tunnel syndrome) include 1.computer users 2.beauticians 3.dentists 4.playing musical instruments 5.use of vibrating tools
Dx of CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) is confirmed with 1.A hx(history) of repetitive hand movements with a flexed wrist 2.EMG(ElectroMyoGraphy)
Tx for CTS(carpal tunnel syndrome) includes 1.proper wrist alignment 2.avoidance of repetitive movements 3.braces & splints 4.NSAIDs 5.Surgery
Herniated Intervertebral Disk(HID) is AKA a slipped or ruptured or bulging disk
A HID (herniated intervertebral disk) occurs more frequently in the lower lumbar region of the back and is many times caused by poor body mechancis
The primary complication of a HID(herniated intervertebral disk) is pressure exerted on the spinal cord and/or spinal nerve(s) causing weakness, tingling, numbness & extreme pain
A common spinal nerve affected by a HID(herniated intervertebral disk) is the sciatic nerve causing sciatica(irritation of a sciatic nerve)
Tx for HID(herniated intervertebral disk) includes 1.bed rest on a firm mattress 2.muscle relaxants(skelaxin) 3.narcotic analgesics(percodan) 4.heat application 5.Trx(traction) 6.TENS(transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) 7.Surgery(diskectomy & vertebral fusion)
Muscular Dystrophy(MD) is a hereditary disease of which there are several forms causing muscle degeneration(deterioration) which totally disables the individual
The most common and serious form of MD(Muscular Dystrophy) is called Duchenne
MD(Muscular Dystrophy) can appear at any age but generally starts appearing at age 3 to 5
Most individuals with MD(muscular dystrophy) do not live to adulthood
Death is caused by the effect of MD(Muscular dystrophy) on the heart and respiratory muscles
Dx of MD(Muscular dystrophy) is confirmed by an EMG(ElectroMyoGraphy) and muscle Bx(biopsy)
Tx of MD(Muscular dystrophy) includes PT (physical therapy), OT (occupational therapy), and orthopedic assistance devices (braces, crutches, wheel chairs)
Myasthenia gravis(MG) is an idiopathic(unknown disease) autoimmune neuromuscular disorder
MG(myasthenia gravis) occurs more often in women
MG(myasthenia gravis) is caused by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles (the nerve that weakens the muscle)
MG(myasthenia gravis) has been linked to abnormal antibodies produced by the thymus
Muscles commonly involved in MG(Myasthenia gravis) include 1.eye movement 2.eyelid movement 3.facial expressions 4.chewing 5.talking 6.swallowing
Tx for MG (Myasthenia gravis) includes 1.thymectomy (surgical removal of the thymus) 2.Immunosuppressants(predisone)
A hernia is a protrusion of a structure through the tissue in which it is normally enclosed
A HH(hiatal hernia) is a protrusion of the stomach through the diaphragm AKA diaphragmatic hernia
An UH(umbilical hernia) is a protrusion of the intestine through the umbilicus
An IH (Inguinal hernia) usually refers to a protrusion of the small intestine into the scrotum
A strangulated(incarcerated) hernia can cause ischemia(starvation of oxygen/O2) and/or necrosis(death) to the tissue it surrounds
Tx of a hernia includes 1.abdominal supports(truss) 2.Hernioplasty(surgical removal of a hernia)
Created by: pattiluv