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Disease Urinary

Chapter 10 Page 234

Acute glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys primarily affecting children and young adults.
Acute glomerulonephritis usually occurs 1-4 weeks after a streptococcal infection ( ).
Signs and symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis include: 1. Chills and pyrexia 2. Anorexia 3. General weakness. 4. Generalized edema especially in the face and ankles. 5. Albuminuria 6. Hematuria 7. Casts in the urine
The Px ( ) for acute glomerulonephritis is generally good if a chronic degeneration of nephrons ( ) does not occur.
Chronic glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys that may persist for years with remissions ( ) and relapses ( ).
Chronic glomerulonephritis is usually accompanied by HTN ( ).
A sign of chronic glomerulonephritis is low spec. grav. ( ) of the urine.
The end result of chronic glomerulonephritis can be renal atrophy ( ) and RF ( ).
The RF causes uremia ( ).
Uremia (azotemia) means a blood condition of excessive nitrogenous ( ) waste.
RF ( ) prevents the kidneys from eliminating nitrogenous ( ) wastes.
Blood tests commonly used to detect renal failure (RF) include: 1. BUN ( ). 2. Cc ( ). 3. Cys C ( ). 4. GFR ( ).
Causes of ARF include: 1. Hypovolemic shock. 2. Blood type or Rh incompatibility. 3. Kidney disease. 4. Trauma. 5. Poisoning.
Signs and symptoms of ARF include: 1. Oliguria 2. Anuria 3. Uremia 4. Ammonia breath. 5.Hyperkalemia 6.Muscle weakness that can lead to cardiac arrest.
Tx of ARF ( ) includes: 1. Remedy the cause. 2. HD ( ) until the kidneys begin to function properly.
Another type of dialysis is called CAPD ( ).
CRF is usually caused by long standing kidney disease such as: 1. Chronic glomerulonephritis. 2. Chronic HTN ( ). 3. DN ( ).
Tx for CRF includes: 1. HD ( ). 2. Kidney transplantation.
CRF ( ) can also be caused by ATN ( ).
Causes of ATN include nephrotoxic agents such as: 1. Certain antibiotics ( ). 2. Dyes used in diagnostic procedures.
Pyelonephritis is a suppurative ( ) inflammation of a renal pelvis.
Pyelonephritis is usually caused by pyogenic ( ) organisms such as: 1. E. coli ( ). 2. Strep ( ). 3. Staph ( ).
These microorganisms can cause abscesses ( ) to form.
Signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis include: 1. Chills and pyrexia 2. Back and abdominal pain. 3. Dysuria ( ). 4. Pyuria ( ). 5. Bacteriuria ( ). 6. Hematuria
Tx for pyelonephritis includes the use of antibiotics ( ).
The Px ( ) for pyelonephritis is good.
Renal carcinoma occurs more frequently ( ) in 50 to 60 year old men.
The incidence of renal carcinoma doubles for smokers.
The Px ( ) for renal carcinoma is poor because metastases ( ) to the lungs, liver, bone, and brain usually occur before signs and symptoms appear.
The chief sign of renal carcinoma is painless hematuria ( ).
A WT ( ) is a malignant fast growing renal tumor in very young children.
The chief sign of a Wilm’s tumor (WT) is painless hematuria ( ).
The Px ( ) for a WT is good if metastasis ( ) has not occurred.
The medical terms for kidney stones are nephrolithiasis and urinary ( ) calculi.
Urinary calculi occur more frequently in 20 to 40 year old men ( ).
Signs and symptoms of nephrolithiasis occur when a calculus obstructs a ureter.
Signs and symptoms of nephrolithiasis include: 1. Sharp severe retroperitoneal ( ) pain radiating to the inguinal ( ) region. 2. Hematuria ( ).
Causes of nephrolithiasis include: 1. Dietary Ca ( ) excess ( ). 2. Dietary protein and Na ( ) excess. 3. Hyperparathyroidism.
A calculus that fills the renal pelvis completely is called a staghorn calculus.
Tests commonly used to detect a renal calculus include: 1. KUB ( ). 2. Renal ultrasound. 3. CT ( ). 4. IVP ( ).
Tx ( ) for a calculus that impedes the flow of urine is a ESWL ( ).
Hydronephrosis occurs when a kidney becomes extremely dilated with urine.
Causes of hydronephrosis include: 1. Renal calculus ( ). 2. Tumor. 3. BPH ( ).
Tx for hydronephrosis involves removal of the obstruction before permanent damage to a kidney(s) occurs.
The leading risk factors for CKD include: 1. DM ( ). 2. Chronic HTN ( ). 3. WT ( ) gain. 4. Smoking.
Women who drink two or more cans of regular soda per day are twice as likely to develop CKD ( ).
Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder AKA “bladder infection.”
Cystitis is more common in women because the female urethra is shorter than in males.
The chief causative agent of cystitis is E. coli ( ).
Signs and symptoms of cystitis include: 1. Urinary frequency 2. Urgency 3. Dysuria ( ). 4. Bacteriuria ( ). 5. Pyuria
Tx ( ) for cystitis includes: 1. Forcing fluids. 2. Antibiotics.
The Px ( ) for cystitis is good.
Methods to decrease the incidence of cystitis include: 1-4 1.Wiping from front to back after a BM 2.Take showers for hygiene instead of baths 3.Do not douche unless directed by a physician. 4.Refrain from wearing tight fitting pants.
Methods to decrease the incidence of cystitis include: 5-8 5.Wearing cotton underwear 6.Urinate after coitus 7.Increase fluid intake every day and include cranberry juice. 8.Vitamin C supplement taken in the evening.
Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra
Urethritis in males may be caused by GC ( ).
Signs and symptoms of urethritis include: 1. Dysuria ( ). 2. Balanorrhea ( ). 3. Testicular edema ( ).
Urethritis in females commonly accompanies cystitis.
Tx ( ) for urethritis includes antibiotics ( ).
PID stands for
PID refers to an inflammation of the female pelvic reproductive organs.
Common causes of PID ( ) include the STDs ( ) GC ( ) and chlamydia.
Signs and symptoms of PID include: 1. Lower abdominal pain. 2. Pyrexia 3. Dysuria 4. Pungent leukorrhea ( ). 5. Dyspareunia ( ).
A complication of untreated PID ( ) is infertility ( ).
Tx ( ) for PID includes antibiotics, ASA ( ), bed rest, and fluids.
Vaginitis is an inflammation of the vagina commonly caused by: 1. Candida albicans ( ). 2. Trichomonas ( ).
Candidiasis is AKA yeast infection.
Candida proliferation ( ) can occur with the over use of antibiotics or douches.
Candida proliferation can destroy the normal vaginal flora ( ) allowing opportunistic yeast infections to occur.
Signs and symptoms of vaginitis include: 1. Pungent leukorrhea ( ). 2. Vaginal pruritus ( ). 3. Vaginal burning and soreness.
A common Tx for candidiasis is Monistat ( ).
A common Tx for trichomoniasis is Flagyl ( ).
The incidence of yeast infections can be reduced by drinking 2 or more glasses of milk daily.
Atrophic vaginitis is caused by atrophy ( ) of the vaginal septa ( ).
Atrophic vaginitis is commonly caused by a decrease in estrogen associated with menopause.
A common complaint of atrophic vaginitis is dyspareunia ( ).
Tx ( ) for atrophic vaginitis includes: 1. ERT ( ) AKA HRT ( ) 2. Antibiotic creams. 3. Steroid creams. 4. Water soluble lubricants
Puerperal sepsis is an infection of the endometrium ( ) occurring after parturition ( ) or abortion ( ).
The most common cause of puerperal sepsis is poor aseptic technique during parturition ( ) or abortion ( ).
The poor aseptic technique allows pathogens such as staphylococci ( ), streptococci, ( ) or E. coli ( ) to enter the uterine wall.
These pathogens will cause necrosis ( ) of the endometrium ( ).
A complication of puerperal sepsis is septic shock.
Signs and symptoms of puerperal sepsis include: 1. Pyrexia ( ) and chills. 2. Profuse ( ) and/or pungent lochia ( ).
Tx ( ) for puerperal sepsis is antibiotic therapy.
Cervical cancer refers to a malignancy of the Cx ( ).
Cervical cancer has a good Px ( ) if detected before metastasis ( ).
The most common test to detect cervical malignancy is the PAP test ( ) every two years.
After age 30 and after 3 consecutive negative PAP tests, every 3 years.
No PAP required after a hysterectomy ( ).
Pap tests should begin within 3 years of becoming sexually active or by age 21.
A cervical lesion detected before metastasis ( ) is called CIS ( ).
Tx for carcinoma in situ includes: 1. Conization 2. Cryosurgery 3. Cauterization 4.Hysterectomy
Risk factors for cervical malignancy include: 1. Poor hygiene. 2. HPV ( ). 3. Multiple sexual partners. 4. Intercourse at an early age. 5. Smoking.
Fibroid tumors are benign tumors of the myometrium ( ).
Fibroid tumors are also called leiomyomas.
Fibroid tumors are more common in African American and obese women.
The risk of developing leiomyomas is 1 in 5 women under the age of 50.
Signs and symptoms of fibroid tumors include: 1. Pelvic pain. 2. Menorrhagia 3. Metrorrhagia 4. Dyspareunia
Tx ( ) options for leiomyomas include: 1. Myomectomy 2. Myolysis 3. Hysterectomy
The most common ovarian neoplasm is an ovarian cyst.
An ovarian cyst is usually a benign ( ) fluid filled sac.
An ovarian cyst will usually resolve with time but a large cyst that interferes with blood flow can be removed surgically.
PCOS ( ) is characterized by androgen ( ) and insulin imbalance.
Signs and symptoms of PCOS include: 1. WT ( ) gain and HTN ( ). 2. Increased facial and body hair. 3. Alopecia ( ). 4. Irregular menses 5. MDD 6. Infertility
An ovarian malignancy is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women.
Signs and symptoms of an ovarian malignancy include: 1. Prolonged abdominal bloating and pelvic pain. 2. Chronic fatigue. 3. Anorexia ( ). 4. WT ( ) loss. 5. Prolonged urinary frequency.
Risk factors for an ovarian malignancy include: 1. High fat diet. 2. Nulliparity ( ). 3. Family history of ovarian, breast, or colorectal cancer. 4. Childbearing after age 30. 5. Delayed menopause.
Ovarian malignancies occur more frequently perimenopausal and postmenopausal.
Tx for an ovarian malignancy includes: 1.Oophorectomy and hysterectomy 2. Chemotherapy 3. Radiation therapy.
If caught before metastasis, the five year survival rate for an ovarian malignancy is 93%.
If caught after metastasis the five year survival rate for an ovarian malignancy is 20-30%.
A chemical in the blood that can elevate with the presence of an ovarian malignancy is CA-125.
The risk of ovarian neoplasms decreases with the use of BCPs ( ).
The most common breast malignancy is an adenocarcinoma.
Adenocarcinomas occur more often in: 1. Nulliparity ( ). 2. Women with a family hx ( ) of breast Ca ( ).
Adenocarcinomas frequently occur around the time of menopause.
Common signs of a breast malignancy include: 1. A hard fixed lump in the upper outer quadrant of a breast. 2. Axillary lymphadenopathy 3. Papillary retraction. 4. The skin can pucker and/or dimple. 5. Papillary ( ) discharge.
ACS ( ) mammogram recommendations include: 1. Annually for 40-49 year olds if personal or family history exists. 2. Ages 50-74, every two years.
BSE ( ) should be performed every month starting at age 20.
A woman’s lifetime risk of developing a breast malignancy is 1 in 8 ( ).
Confirmation of the suspected tumor can be made with a stereotactic needle biopsy ( ).
Malignant breast tumors can metastasize to the lungs, liver, brain, and bone via the lymphatic system.
Tx for a breast malignancy includes: 1. Lumpectomy ( ). 2. Mastectomy ( ). 3. Radiation therapy. 4. Chemotherapy ( ).
Factors that increase the incidence of a breast malignancy include: 1.ETOH 2. Smoking. 3. Sedentary lifestyle 4.Consuming sugary sweets 3 or more times per week. 5. ERT 6. BCPs 7. Nulliparity 8. Folate ( ) deficiency.
Foods rich in folate ( ) include: leafy green vegetables, fortified cereals, legumes, citrus, bananas, melons, and blackberries.
Breast malignancy risk can be significantly reduced by moderate exercise, healthy weight, and breastfeeding.
Breast malignancies are more common in women over the age of 45.
The younger a person is with a breast malignancy, the more aggressive the disease.
The most common benign tumor of a breast is called a fibroadenoma.
Fibroadenomas are usually solid, round, rubbery, painless and move freely.
A second type of benign tumor of a breast is called FCC ( ) AKA “lumpy breasts.”
FCC usually occur in both breasts and increase in size and tenderness just prior to menses ( ).
A third type of benign breast tumor is a fluid filled cyst.
Breast cysts are round, moveable, and may increase in size and become tender just prior to menses ( ).
TSS is commonly caused by proliferation ( ) of staph ( ).
TSS is associated with tampon use.
Signs of TSS ( ) include: 1. Hyperthermia ( ). 2. Rash. 3. Peeling skin. 4. GI distress ( ). 5. Hypotension ( ).
Tx for TSS ( ) includes: 1. Fluid replacement. 2. Antibiotic therapy.
Women who use tampons are encouraged to change them frequently and avoid super-absorbent.
PMS is a group symptoms that start 1 to 2 weeks before menstruation ( ) and usually cease ( ) with the onset of menses ( ).
Signs and symptoms of PMS include: 1-7 1.Lower abdominal bloating and pain. 2.Breast swelling and tenderness. 3.Cephalalgia 4.Weight gain. 5.Acne. 6.Insomnia 7.Mood swings.
Signs and symptoms of PMS include: 8-15 8.Anxiety. 9.MDD 10.Irritability. 11.Hostility. 12.Crying spells. 13.Food cravings 14.Clumsiness. 15.Fatigue.
Tx for PMS includes: 1. Increase water intake. 2. Regular exercise. 3. Support groups. 4. Stress management techniques. 5. The avoidance of salt, sugar, caffeine, and alcohol. 6. OTC ( ) analgesics.
PMDD ( ) is a severe form of PMS ( ).
The signs and symptoms of PMDD are severe enough to interfere with work, social activities, and relationships.
Tx for PMDD includes sedatives and antidepressants.
Endometriosis is a condition caused by ectopic ( ) endometrium ( ).
The ectopic endometrium responds to the cyclic hormonal stimulation and can cause: 1. Pelvic pain and bloating. 2. Menorrhagia 3. Metrorrhagia 4. Fatigue. 5. Sterility
Tx for endometriosis includes: 1. Laparoscopic ( ) excision of the ectopic endometrium. 2. OCPs ( ) causing amenorrhea
An EP occurs when a fertilized ovum implants in tissue other than the uterus.
The most common site for an EP is a fallopian tube ( ) AKA “tubal pregnancy.”
Causes of EPs ( ) include 1. Salpingitis ( ) associated with STDs ( ) causing fallopian adhesions 2. Endometriosis
Signs and symptoms of an EP ( ) usually appear within 2 months and include: 1. Unilateral ( ) abdominal and/or pelvic pain. 2. Vaginal bleeding. 3. Vertigo ( ). 4. Weakness and syncope ( ). 5. N+V
Tx for an EP ( ) includes: 1. Termination of pregnancy with methotrexate or laparoscopic salpingostomy.
A spontaneous abortion is AKA miscarriage.
A spontaneous abortion during the first trimester is often caused by a fetal genetic abnormality ( ).
A spontaneous abortion usually occurs between the 7th and 12th weeks of gestation (pregnancy).
Causes of miscarriage include: 1. Infection. 2. Drugs, ETOH ( ), smoking, and caffeine. 3. Poor nutrition. 4. Toxins ( ). 5. Radiation.
The surgical procedure performed to scrape the endometrium if placental tissue remains after a miscarriage is called a D+C ( ).
Toxemia is AKA preeclampsia.
Preeclampsia only occurs during pregnancy ( ).
The principal signs of preeclampsia include: 1. PIH 2. Albuminuria ( ). 3. Edema 4.Unusual WT gain.
If seizures develop, the condition is called eclampsia.
Prevention techniques include: 1. Prenatal care. 2. Proper nutrition.
Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate commonly caused by E. coli ( ) or GC ( ).
Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include: 1. Urgency 2. Frequency 3. Dysuria ( ). 4. Pyuria ( ). 5. Hematuria ( ). 6. Painful ejaculation.
Prostatitis usually responds well to antibiotic therapy.
BPH is a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate.
Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) is more common after the age of 50.
The enlarged prostate can frequently be palpated ( ) by DRE ( ).
The enlarged prostate squeezes the urethra and the patient will complain of dysuria ( ) and urinary retention ( ).
Untreated urinary retention can cause hydronephrosis.
Tx for BPH ( ) includes: 1. Avodart or Flomax. 2. Cystoscopy ( and TURP ( ).
A prostatic carcinoma may be small and initially asymptomatic ( ).
Signs and symptoms of a prostatic carcinoma include: 1. Dysuria 2. Hematuria 3. Anorexia ( ) and WT ( ) loss. 4. Nocturia 5. Urinary incontinence ( ) AKA enuresis.
The blood test to detect a predisposition ( ) for prostatic carcinoma is PSA ( ).
A PSA should be performed annually for men over the age of 50
Prostatic carcinoma can metastasize ( ) to the rectum, lymph, and bone.
A good Px ( ) depends on early detection.
Tx for prostatic carcinoma includes: 1. Chemotherapy 2. Bilateral orchiectomy 3. Radiation therapy. 4. Prostatectomy
Cryptorchidism refers to an undescended testicle
Cryptorchidism can eventually cause sterility
Tx for cryptorchidism includes orchiopexy ( ) or orchiectomy
Impotence is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection AKA ED ( ).
Causes of ED include: 1. Poorly controlled stress. 2. Arteriosclerosis 3. DM 4. Complications of prostatectomy 5. Trauma. 6. Side effects from medications 7. Drug and/or alcohol abuse.
Tx for ED ( ) includes: 1. Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis. 2. Penile implants.
STDs are also known as STIs ( ).
Methods to reduce incidence of STIs include: 1. Abstinence ( ). 2. Monogamy ( ). 3. Barriers ( ).
Chlamydia is the most common STD and the number one cause of PID ( ).
Untreated chlamydia can cause sterility ( ) in women.
Chlamydia infections are often asymptomatic ( ).
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia for women may include: 1. Dysuria ( ). 2. Pungent ( ) vaginal discharge. 3. Dyspareunia ( ). 4. Dysmenorrhea 5. Abdominal pain. 6. Vaginal pruritus
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia for men may include: 1. Dysuria ( ). 2. Balanorrhea ( ). 3. Testicular edema ( ).
Chlamydia can be cured with antibiotics.
Gonorrhea is caused by GC ( ) and is the second most common STD
Untreated gonorrhea can cause sterility ( ) in men and women.
Gonorrhea transmitted to a fetus during delivery can cause blindness and possibly death.
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea usually appear 2-10 days after exposure.
Gonorrhea infections can be asymptomatic
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea for women may include: 1. Greenish-yellow vaginal discharge. 2. Lower abdominal and pelvic pain. 3. Pharyngitis ( ). 4. Dysuria
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea for men may include: 1. Greenish-yellow balanorrhea ( ). 2. Dysuria ( ). 3. Pharyngitis ( ) 4. Testicular edema
Gonorrhea can be cured with antibiotics
The primary stage of syphilis is characterized by one or more painless ulcers that appear on the penis, labia, lips, tongue, or anus called chancres.
A chancre will develop within a 10 to 90 days after sexual contact
A chancre will heal and disappear in 3-6 weeks.
This primary stage is treatable with PCN ( ).
If primary syphilis is left untreated the secondary stage begins within 6 weeks to 6 months after exposure and usually lasts 1 to 3 months.
The secondary stage is characterized by a non-pruritic rash ( ) typically on the palms and soles.
The secondary stage is treatable with PCN ( ).
The tertiary ( ) stage can occur years after the primary infection.
The tertiary stage occurs in approximately 30% of people infected with syphilis.
Complications of the tertiary stage include heart disease, blindness, mental illness, and death.
Blood tests for syphilis include: 1. VDRL. 2. RPR. 3. EIA.
Genital herpes is an extremely painful chronic viral disease caused by the HSV II ( ).
In the US, the HSV II affects 1 in 4 women and 1 in 5 men.
Symptoms of HSVII generally occur within 3 weeks of exposure.
Signs and symptoms of HSV II include: 1. Multiple painful ( ), pruritic ( ), vesicles ( ) that appear on the genitalia, buttocks, and thighs. 2. Dysuria 3. Vaginal discharge.
The active lesions appear when the immune system is compromised.
This disease is more easily transmitted when the lesions are active.
Outbreaks of genital herpes can be treated with antiviral drugs ( ). There is no cure.
There are approximately 30 different types of the HPV ( ).
75-80% of all males and females will be infected with the HPV during their lifetime.
For most, the immune system will defeat the HPV
90% of HPV lesions ( ) are caused by 2 types of the HPV.
HPV lesions ( ) may appear within weeks or several months of the sexual exposure.
HPV lesions ( ) commonly appear on the penis and scrotum in men and on the perineum in women.
The primary symptoms of the HPV are pruritus ( ) and pain
About 75% of all cervical malignancies are caused by 2 other types of the HPV
Uncircumcised men are three times more likely to be infected with the HPV ( ).
A vaccine is available for these four types of the HPV called Gardasil ( ).
Approved for males and females ages 9-26.
Best results occur if vaccine is administered before exposure ( ).
Tx for the HPV ( ) includes: 1. Antiviral medications. 2. Electrocautery ( ). 3. Cryosurgery ( ).
HPV is also associated with cardiovascular disease.
Created by: willowsalem