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Early Humans - Mr. B

Prehistory Human history in the period BEFORE recorded events; known mainly through archaeological discoveries, fossils, study, research.
History The branch of knowledge dealing with recorded human events after the invention of writing. Man's temporal relationship on Earth over time.
Oral Tradition a community's cultural and historical traditions passed down by word of mouth or example from one generation to another without written instruction or records. Ex: tribal elders relating the creation story of their people
Neolithic The New Stone Age (neo = new, lithic = stone); pertaining to or characteristic of the last phase of the Stone Age, marked by the Domestication of animals, the development of stone & metal tools, and the manufacture of pottery and textiles.
Forensics a systematic, scientific approach to investigate & analyze physical evidence to solve a crime or answer scientific questions. (Ex:CSI and Bones TV shows) Forensic Anthropology is usually for the recovery & identification of skeletonized human remains.
Forensic Archaeology The application of a combination of archaeological techniques and forensic science, typically in law enforcement
Radio-Carbon Dating The determination of the age of objects of organic (natural)origin by measurement of the radioactivity of their carbon content. The chemical element Carbon deteriorates at a constant rate.
Clovis Pertaining to a Paleo-Indian (Old Stone Age Indian) culture of New Mexico,North America, esp. the Southwest, dated 10,000-9,000 B.C. Characterized by a double-edged, fluted flint stone projectile (Clovis Point) used to hunt big game (mammoths).
Genetic Drift Theory about random changes in the DNA gene pool, caused by some groups becoming biological magnets leading to much less diversity in a given population.
Smithsonian Institution The U.S. national museum of natural history. An institution in Washington D.C. founded in 1846 with a grant from James Smithson. The original collection was made of the artifacts and examples sent to Jefferson by Lewis & Clark in 1805.
N.A.G.P.R.A. Native American Graves Preservation and Repatriation Act; law that requires that all ancient skeletons and grave sites in the USA be considered sacred Native American remains and turned over to selected tribes for reburial.
Caucasoid An anthropological, descriptive term relating to traditional racial divisions of humankind. Characterized by square eye sockets, small bifurcate chin, lower cheek bones and little facial forwardness.
Migration the movement of people, animals, birds, fish, etc. for the prose of following the food supply, seasonal migration to nesting/spawning areas, etc.
Nomads a people or tribe that has no permanent home, but moves about from place to place, usually seasonally and often following a traditional route
Domesticate to convert animals, plants, etc. from wild to tamed for human use as food, transportation or labor.
Fertile rich soil, bearing, producing, or capable of producing vegetation, crops,etc. abundantly
Atlatl Spear or dart thrower made from wood or bone that acts as an extension of the human arm allowing the projectile to be thrown farther with more force.
Neanderthal Fossils of early humans found in a valley in Germany wo lived in Western Europe, Western Asia, and the Near East from 200,000 years ago until they disappeared around 30,000 years ago. Likely co-existed w/ Cro-Magnon people.
Homo Sapiens Sapiens Meaning "wise man" or the first modern humans. The 1st anatomically modern humans emerged around 100,000 years ago, as part of the 2nd migration out of East Africa. Taller and more intelligent (larger brain) than Neanderthals, who they replaced.
Hominid walks upright on two (2) legs, not on all fours
Bering Land Bridge land connecting Alaska (N.America) and Siberia (Asia) that was exposed during the last Ice Age when sea levels were much lower due to massive continental glaciers
Glacier A massive, slow-moving mass of ice and snpw that retain vast amounts of water, and slowly grind and shape the land surface beneath. The North American glaciers were believed to be over 2 miles thick and extended out to the continental shelf.
Ice Age There have been 11 ice ages in Earth's 4.6 billion year history. The last Ice Age (Pleistocene) ended around 11,000 years ago.All the continents were mostly covered by extensive glaciers caused dramatic lowering of sea levels, and exposed land.
Australopithecus Meaning "Southern Man";this early South Africa walked upright & combined features of apes and man. (Known as "Lucy", 3'6" tall with hands & feet with more ape-like features - 3 million years old)
Ardipithecus ramidus Discovered in Ethiopia, E.Africa, ("Ardi")was small-brained & shows mix of advanced characteristics & of primitive traits seen in much older apes that were unlike chimps /gorillas. Walked upright on ground, used all four limbs in trees. 4.4 M years old
Denisovan Hominids discovered in Siberia(E. Asia) who lived about 40,000 yrs ago and based on DNA tests, appear to have interbred with modern humans (Cro-Magnon).
Homo Latin for the genus (family) of man
Homo Erectus Meaning "upright man"; also known as "Java Man", discovered on Indonesian island of Java in 1890. Lived from 1.8 M -200,000 yrs ago; considered 1st "really big hominid" & featured much larger brain; likely 1st hominid to control fire
Homo Habilis Meaning "handy man", so named by Louis Leakey because of the stone tools found near the skeletal remains (1.9 million-1.5 million years ago)
B.C. Notating the period of history in the Western calendar "Before Christ". Born during the reign of Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar
B.C.E. A more generic term meaning "Before the Common Era"; used in place of B.C.
A.D. Anno Dominum, Latin meaning "in the year of our Lord"; in the Western Gregorian Calendar, those dates after the birth of Jesus Christ
C.E. Common Era; used in place of A.D.
Decade a period of 10 years
Century a period of 100 years
Millenium a period of 1,000 years
Era a historical period distinguished by certain important or significant happening (ex:Modern Era)
Louis Leakey British anthropologist who discovered Homo Habilis in East Africa
Morphology physical characteristics or traits of the human skull, such as height, width of cheek bones, shape of eye sockes, chin shape, etc.
Paleolithic Old Stone Age ; use of stone as tools, rather than the New Stone Age where man purposely made different tools from stone.
Kennewick Man Name given to the skeletal remains of a prehistoric man found along the Columbia River in 1996. Bones were carbon-dated to 9,000 years old.
Flint type of mineral that could be fashioned into spear points (see Clovis), arrow heads & knives, commonly used by Neolithic hunter-gatherers, through a process called flintknapping.
Flint (cont.) Could also be used to start a fire by creating sparks. Flint is a hard, tough chemical sedimentary rock that breaks with a conchoidal fracture (it flakes when struck at an angle). It is a form of quartz typically called "chert" by geologists.
Hunter-Gatherers Early nomadic humans who migrated following their food supply (animal herds, fish, fruits, berries, birds, nuts, roots, etc.)
Obsidian shiny black sedimentary rock also used to make weapons and cutting tools by Neolithic hunter-gatherers.
Flintknapping is the shaping of flint, chert, obsidian or other fracturing stone through the process of chipping off flakes of stone to manufacture stone tools during the Neolithic period
Geography the study of Earth's surface and the processes that shape it. the connections between places, and the relationship between people and their environment. Man's spatial relationship on Earth.
Created by: bottleguy