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Bone and Cartilage

This stack list core knowledge on this topic

What type of collagen is bone made of? Collagen type 1
Name of extracelluar matrix of bone Osteoid
What happens to osteoid which gives bone it's rigidity and strength and by deposition of which substance? Mineralisation, Calcium Hydroxyapatite
Osteoblast Synthesise osteoid and mediate mineralisation
Osteoblasts are found... lined up along bone surface
osteoclast Large multinucleated phagocytic cells capable of eroding bones
Osteocytes Inactive osteoblast trapped within formed bone
Osteoblast and osteoclast derives from... Primitive mesenchymal (stem) cell called osteoprogenitor cell
Osteoclast derives from Macrophage-monocyte cell line
Is bone vascularised and metabolically active? Yes
List some of the functions of bone? *Bone tissue supports fleshly structure *Protects vital organ e.g. cranial, thoracic cavaty *Bone marrow, where blood cells are formed *Reservoir of calcium, phosphate and other ions and their orderly intake and uptake from blood *Act as lever
Shape osteoblast when synthesising osteoid Large broad cuboidal shape
Organelles abundant in osteoblast... REM,Golgi apparatus
Describe the structure of inactive osteoblast? Narrow attenuated spindle-shaped. Virtually undetectable except long narrow nucleus.
In areas of bone undergoing resorption, osteoclast lie within enzymatically etched depression in matrix known as _________. Howship's lacunae
In active osteoclast, the surface-facing bone matrix is folded into irregular, often subdivided projections, forming __________ . Ruffled border
Role of ruffled border *Secretes organic acids to dissolve minerals *Secretes lysosomal proteolytic enzymes to destroy organic osteoid matrix
Osteoclast resorption contributes to... Bone remodelling in response to growth and mechanical stresses
Arrangement of collagen in woven and woven and lamellar bone random, regular parallel bands
Woven and lamellar bones are found in... Woven ==> Fetal bone development Lamellar ==> Adult bone
Rapidly formed ______ bone is eventually remodelled to form ______ lamellar bone. Woven, Lamellar
Name the two types of lamellar bone. 1) Compact (cortical) bone 2) Cancellous (medullary) bone
Diaphysis is occupied by _________ bone Compact
Medullary cavity is occupied by _______ bone Cancellous
Cancellous bone consists of a network of fine, ______ plates called _______ separated by intercommunicating spaces. irregular, trabeculae
Articular cartilage are found in which bone region? Epiphysis
Periosteum External fibrous surface of the bone which inserts muscle, tendons and ligaments.
Endosteum Covers innter surface of bones, including trabeculae of cancellous bone