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Endocrine System

Body Structures Chapter 12 Page 269

The endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream.
Hormones are chemical catalysts.
A chemical catalyst causes a reaction to occur.
Hormones help maintain the body’s internal environment within certain narrow ranges. This balancing act is called homeostasis.
The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain.
The pituitary is the size of a pea.
The pituitary gland is AKA hypophysis or “master gland.”
It is called the “master gland” because its hormones control the functions of many other endocrine glands.
Even though the pituitary is called the “master gland” it is controlled by the hypothalamus.
The pituitary gland is divided into two sections called the anterior and posterior lobes.
The anterior lobe produces: #'s 1 to 4 1.GH which stands for growth hormone. 2.TSH (T7) which stands for thyroid stimulating hormone and is AKA thyrotropin. 3.ACTH which stands for adrenocorticotropic hormone. 4.MSH which stands for melanocyte stimulation hormone. hormone.
GH stimulates cell metabolism causing cells to divide (replicate) and increase in size.
Significant amounts of GH is secreted until age 20
Insufficient amounts of GH can cause dwarfism.
A synthetic GH is called Humatrope (somatropin).
Excessive amounts of GH can cause giantism.
TSH stimulates the thyroid to produce its hormones.
ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce their hormones.
The anterior lobe produces: #'s to 7 5. FSH which stands for follicle stimulating hormone. 6. LH which stands for luteinizing hormone. 7. Lactogenic hormone AKA prolactin.
MSH stimulates the melanocytes to produce melanin (skin pigment).
A hereditary disorder characterized by an absence of melanin is called albinism
FSH stimulates the: a. Ovaries to start the maturation process of a follicle (oocyte) into an ovum. b. Testes to create spermatozoa (spermatogenesis).
LH stimulates: a. Ovulation. b. The production of progesterone to maintain pregnancy. c. Production of testosterone in males.
Lactogenic hormone stimulates the production of milk (lactation).
The posterior lobe of the pituitary produces: 1.ADH which stands for antidiuretic hormone AKA vasopressin. 2.OT which stands for oxytocin.
ADH influences the volume of urine produced.
Insufficient production of ADH is called Diabetes Insipidus (DI).
A synthetic ADH is called Pitressin (vasopressin).
OT stimulates the uterus to contract during labor.
A synthetic oxytocin is called Pitocin (“Pit drip”).
Oxytocin is also known as the binding hormone.
Binding refers to male-female and mother-neonate bonding.
The thyroid gland is located on the right and left sides of the trachea just inferior to the larynx.
The thyroid produces the following hormones: 1. T4 also known as thyroxine. 2. T3 also known as triiodothyronine. 3. Calcitonin.
T3 and T4 are both commonly referred to as thyroxine.
T3 and T4 are responsible for the regulation of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism.
Metabolism refers to the rate at which the body utilizes (burns) energy.
Hyperthyroidism is called Grave’s disease.
Hypothyroidism is called myxedema.
A synthetic thyroxine is called Synthroid (levothyroxine).
Calcitonin is released when the blood calcium levels rise.
Calcitonin causes the deposit of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in the bones.
The parathyroid glands are located embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland.
The parathyroid glands are the size of raisins.
The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) AKA parathormone.
PTH causes osteocytes to release stored calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) into the blood.
Release of PTH will occur when serum Ca levels fall.
The adrenal glands are located just superior to the kidneys.
The adrenal glands AKA suprarenal glands.
The inner portion of the adrenal glands is called the adrenal medulla.
The outer portion of the adrenal glands is called the adrenal cortex.
The adrenal medulla produces: Adrenalin AKA epinephrine.
Adrenalin (epinephrine) contributes to the “fight or flight” response.
This response includes: 1. The breakdown of glycogen to glucose. 2. Tachycardia. 3. Tachypnea. 4. Bronchodilation. 5. Hypertension. 6. Pallor.
The adrenal cortex produces 1. Aldosterone. 2. Cortisol (hydrocortisone).
These hormones are AKA steroids (corticosteroids).
Anabolic steroids, the type used by athletes, are synthetic versions of testosterone.
Conditions associated with anabolic steroid use includes: 1. Sudden death (MI, CVA). 2. Liver cancer. 3. Aggressiveness (“roid rage”).
Aldosterone regulates the balance of electrolytes (“lytes”).
The electrolytes (salts) include: 1. Sodium (Na). 2. Potassium (K). 3. Chloride (Cl). 4. Calcium (Ca). 5. Phosphorus (P).
The actions of cortisol (hydrocortisone) include: 1. Maintain proper glucose concentration in the blood between meals. 2. Helps reduce the inflammatory response. 3. Aids the body with stressful situations.
Hypersecretion of cortisol is called Cushing’s disease.
Hyposecretion of cortisol is called Addison’s disease.
A synthetic cortisol is called cortisone.
The pancreas is located posterior to the stomach (retrogastric).
The purpose of the pancreas includes the production of insulin and glucagon.
Insulin is secreted when the blood sugar (BS) rises after eating a meal.
The insulin allows the glucose (BS) to enter the cells.
When the glucose enters the cells the blood sugar (BS) level will fall.
When the blood sugar (BS) falls too low the pancreas will secrete glucagon.
Glucagon will stimulate the liver to convert glycogen to glucose.
This action will cause the glucose (BS) to rise.
A normal blood sugar (BS) is: 1. 70 - 130 mg/dL before meals (a.c.) 2. Less than 180 mg/dL 2 hours after meals (p.c.).
Hyposecretion of insulin and/or the difficult utilization of glucose (insulin resistance) by the cells is called diabetes mellitus (DM).
A synthetic insulin is called Humulin (insulin).
Medications designed to stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin or aid the cells in glucose (BS) utilization are called oral hypoglycemics (antidiabetics).
Risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include: 1-4 1.Heredity. 2.Obesity. 3.Over consumption of refined sugars. 4.Over consumption of food.
Risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include: 5-8 5. Sedentary lifestyle (little or no regular exercise). 6. Gestational (pregnancy) diabetes mellitus (DM). 7. African American, Native American, Hispanic, Asian American. 8. Chronic hypertension (HTN).
Diabetes mellitus that develops in children is called juvenile onset diabetes mellitus (DM) or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or type I diabetes mellitus (DM).
Type I diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most serious form of diabetes mellitus (DM) and requires: 1. Daily injections of insulin. 2. Strict diet control. 3. Regimented exercise.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) that develops in adulthood is called maturity onset diabetes mellitus (DM) or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or type II diabetes mellitus (DM).
This type of diabetes mellitus (DM) is less severe and can often be controlled by proper diet alone or proper diet and oral hypoglycemics (antidiabetics) such as Diabenese or Glucophage.
Oral hypoglycemics (antidiabetics) stimulate the pancreas to secrete more insulin and/or allows the cells to utilize glucose (BS) more efficiently.
Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: a. Polyuria (excessive urination). b. Glycosuria (sugar in the urine). c. Polydipsia (excessive thirst). d. Ketonuria (ketones in the urine). e. Weight loss. f. Fatigue. g. Poor wound healing.
Complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: 1-2 1.Atherosclerosis leading to myocardial infarction (MI), cerebral vascular accident (CVA) or occlusion of a leg artery resulting in gangrene. 2. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) which can result in blindness.
Complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: 3-4 3. Neuropathy causing pain, tingling, loss of feeling, and paralysis. 4. Kidney failure.
Complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) include: 5 5. Impotence AKA erectile dysfunction (ED).
Treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM) includes: a-b a. Strict diet based on number of calories per day divided into proper portions of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. b. Correct dosages of insulin based on self-blood glucose monitoring (SBGM).
Treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM) includes: c c. Regular exercise because diet intake and insulin (Humulin) dosage are based on the metabolic needs of the individual.
Diet, insulin, or exercise cannot be altered without creating an insulin excess or deficiency.
Diabetic coma (elevated BS) can result when a diabetic: 1. Fails to take enough insulin. 2. Increases caloric intake. 3. Decreases exercise.
Signs and symptoms of diabetic coma include: 1. Deep labored breathing. 2. Dry skin and mouth. 3. Fruity smell to breath. 4. Lethargy (mental sluggishness). 5. Loss of consciousness (LOC) and coma.
Treatment of diabetic coma includes administration of insulin and hydration.
Insulin shock (deficient BS) results when a diabetic: 1. Administers too much insulin. 2. Does not eat enough food. 3. Exercises excessively.
Signs and symptoms of insulin shock include: 1. Shallow breathing. 2. Diaphoresis (profuse sweatiness). 3. Syncope (fainting). 4. Loss of consciousness (LOC) and coma.
Treatment for insulin shock includes administration of sugar in any form.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions: a-d a. Follow prescribed diet exactly. b. Take prescribed insulin or hypoglycemics as directed. c. Monitor BS every day. d. Follow daily exercise regiment.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions: e-f e. Always wear feet protection to prevent injury from stubbing, fire ants, sand spurs, etc. f. Have a podiatrist take care of ANY foot needs immediately such as clipping toe nails, corns, bunions, calluses, wounds, etc. to prevent accidental injury.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions: g-h g. A medical alert bracelet or necklace should be worn at all times. h. Always check temperature of bath water before stepping into bath to prevent scalding.
Even a small wound to a diabetic’s feet can result in uncontrolled infection due to poor wound healing and can eventually lead to putrefaction (gangrene) amputation of the extremity.
Diabetics that have difficulty controlling their blood sugar are called “brittle diabetics.”
Other risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include: 1. Highly irregular menses. 2. More than 40 days between cycles. 3. A waist size greater than 40 inches in men and 35 inches in women.
Some studies indicate that type II diabetes mellitus (DM) can double the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
GTT glucose tolerance test
PPBS postprandial blood sugar
FBS fasting blood sugar
A1c (HbA1c) provides an average of your BS control over a 6 to 12 week period
A1c (HbA1c) normal range 4% - 6% (DM > 7%)
fructosamine test measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks
PBI protein bound iodine
RAIU radioactive iodine uptake test
HCG human chorionic gonadotropin (serum and urine pregnancy test)
Created by: willowsalem