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AP World History

Chapter 14 Notecards

QuestionAnswer
What and where did the Mongols eat and live? They depended on herds of goats and sheep;main foods were the meat and milk products from their herds; very dependent on ponies, children rode them as soon as they could walk and Mongol warriors could ride for day on end, sleeping and eating in the saddle
Explain the political organization of the Mongols. They had kin-related clans. When threatened, clans & tribes could be combined in great confederations; At all organizational levels, the leaders were elected by freemen of the group; Women had the right to be heard in tribal councils.
Outline in detail the story and rise of Chinggis Khan. Born in 1170's, known as Tumujin;father poisoned when he was teenager which made him leader;he was attacked by rivals and was taken prisoner; he escaped and joined family and followers;
How did a leader arise? It took courage in a bottle, usually evidenced by bravery in the hunt, and the ability to forge alliances and attract dependents were vital leadership skills; A strong leader could quickly build up a large following of chiefs from other clans;
After Chinggis Khan (Temujin) escaped and joined his followers what did he do? He got together with more powerful Mongul chieftain and avenged the insults of the clan that had enslaved him.
As Temujin defeated Mongul rivals his reputation as a warrior grew.
When was Temujin renamed Chinggis Khan? 1206
Chinggis Khan was elected? Khagan of Mongul tribes
Explain the skills of Mongol warriors in a bottle. They were physically tough, mobile, and accustomed to killing and death.
What kind of weapons did Mongol warriors have? Lances, hatchets, iron maces
A Mongol warrior could fire a quiver of arrows with stunning accuracy without breaking the stride of a horse.
Explain the Mongol military organization. They were divided into armies made up of basic fighting units called tumens.
What were commanders of each level of the Mongol forces responsible for? Training, arming, and disciplining the cavalrymen under their charge.
What did Chinggis Khan and his subordinate commanders bring? Organization, discipline, and unity of command
Explain the Mongol mindset of manhood and Chinggis Khan's treatment of traitors and men of courage. A code directed the immediate execution of a warrior who deserted his unit. His traitors were executed quickly and for bravery he gave respect to the people.
Explain the special unit. They supplied Mongol armies with excellent maps of the area to invade. These were largely according to the information supplied by Chinggis Khan's extensive network of spies and informers.
Explain Chinggis Khan's view of life's purpose. He saw he and his sons marked with the special destiny: warriors born to conquer the known world.
Explain the Mongol treatment of different towns. Townspeople were slaughtered or sold in slavery if they resisted and palaces, mosques, and temples would be reduced to rubble. If they didn't resist they would be spared and pay tribute to Mongols.
Where did Mongols first attack China? The Xi Xia empire in northwest China.
What happened to the Khwarazm Empire? They were overwhelmed in war; their cities fell to new siege weapons and tactics the Mongols and perfected in north China; their armies were routed in battles by the Mongol cavalry
Explain the Mongol tactics. Cavalry were sent to attack the enemy's main force; feigning defeat, the cavalry retreated, drew the opposing forces out of formation in hope of a chance to slaughter the fleeing enemy.
Where did Chinggis Khan attack at the end of his life? His armies destroyed Xi Xia Kingdom and overran the Qin Empire in north China.
By 1227, the Mongols ruled an empire that stretched from eastern Persia to the North China Sea.
Explain how life was like under Chinggis Khan's rule. Destructive towards those who resisted demands. However, once conquered people were subdued he took an interests in their arts and learning.
Under Chinggis Khan's rule people Paid tribute; standardized laws; all religions tolerated; trade flourished and people enjoyed peace
Explain Chinggis Khan's last campaign. He went east with 180,000 soldiers to finish the Tanguts; He routed their army and destroyed them
Khan died in 1227 while hunting down Tangut survivors.
How was power divided after Chinggis Khan's death? The Pasturelands the Mongols controlled were divided between Khan's 3 remaining sons and granson Batu (heir of his deceased son); Towns and areas in north China and parts of Persia were common property of Mongol ruling family.
Who was elected grand khan after Chinggis Khan's death? Ogedei, his eldest son, in accordance with his wishes.
Explain in detail what happened to Russia. They had been on the decline for some time which resulted in no paramount power to rally forces against invaders; Preferred to fight alone and were routed individually; Mongol armies defeated the larger forces of local nomadic groups and Russian princes.
Explain what happened in Moscow under Mongol rule. Mongol religious toleration benefited Orthodox Church and Moscow; Orthodox leaders brought wealth to princes; 1380, princes went from tribute collectors to defenders of Russia; end of 14 century, became center of political power in Russia
What was the effects of the Mongols rule of Russia? Led to changes in military organization and tactics and political style of rulers;Russian princes desired to centralize their control, reduce limitations placed on their powers;Cut off Russia from key changes in western Europe;Mongol rule averted Crusades
What was the legend of Prester John? A mythical rich, powerful Christion monarch whose kingdom was cut off from Europe by the Muslims in 7th and 8th centuries. In Europeans imagination it was potential ally that could strike the Muslims from behind and join up with European Christians.
Who did the Europeans think was Prester John? Chinggis Khan, while he was conquering the Muslims in Asia. They knew he wasn't after the Mongols conquered Russia.
What happened to the Hungarians? The monarch thought King Bela was the ruler of a powerful kingdom. The Mongols almost completely destroyed them in 1240 after they wouldn't give up their power.
Why was Europe spared? Khagan Ogedei died, forcing Batu to withdraw in preparation for the struggle for sucession.
Explain in detail the attacks on Islam. Baghdad was captured and destroyed in 1258; Murder of Abbasis caliph (one of 800,000 killed by Mongols); Victory over Seljuk Turks in 1243 was critical to future history of region.
Explain how the Mamluks survived the Mongols. They were enslaved by the Mongols some years earlier and sold in Egypt. When the Mongols destroyed most everything in western Europe and Asia they avoided them because they never went to Egypt.
What did the Mongols bring to Europe? New ways of making war and impressed them with the effectiveness of gunpowder.
The Mongols revived trade routes and brought great wealth to traders.
What is one of the impacts the Mongols had on Europe and the Islamic world? They transmitted the fleas that carried bubonic pague from South China and Central Asia.
Explain the segregation of Mongol and Chinese society. Chinese scholors were forbidden to learn Mongol script; Mongols were forbidden to marry ethnic Chinese; friendship between groups was discouraged; Mongol religious ceremonies and customs were retained
Explain the new social structure of the Yaun dynasty. Mongols on top, Central Asian nomadic and Muslim allies below them, and then ethnic Chinese and minority peoples of the south.
Explain Kubilai Khan's view of the Chinese. He did not like the Chinese and their civilization; he wanted to establish a more permanent Mongol control in China
Created by: crescenti