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unit 2 vocabulary ap

unit 2

Demography the scietific study of population characterisitcs
overpopulation the number of people in an area exceeding the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
ecumene the portion of earths surface occupied by permanent human settlement
arithmetic density the total number of people divided by the toatl land area
physiological density the number of people per unit o f area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
agricultural density the ration of the number of farmers to the amount of land suitable for agriculture
crude birth rate te total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society
crude death rate the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society
natural increase rate the percentage growth of a population in a year,computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
doubling time the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
life expectancy the average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live
toatl fertility rate the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
infant mortality rate the total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society
demographic transition the process of change in a societys population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rates of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates low rate of naturla increase and a higher total populaton
agricultral revolution the time when human begins first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
industrial revolution a series of improvements in industrial technology that transfered the process of manufacturing goods
meical revolution medical technology invented in europe and and north america that is different to the poorer countiresof latin america, asia, africa. improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditonal causes of deaths in poorer countries
zero population growth a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
population pyramid bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
dependency ratio the number of people under the age of 15 and over the age of 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force
sex ratio the number of males per 100 females in the population
epidemologic transition distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic
pandemic disease that occurs over a wide geographic are and affects a very high portion of the population
emigration migration from a location
immigration miration to a new location
push factor a factor that includes people to leave old residences
pull factor a factor that induces people to move to a new location
inernational migration permanent movement from one country to another
internal migration permanant movement within a particular country
interragional migration permanent movement from one region of a country to another
intraregional migration permanent movement within one region of a country
voluntary migration permanent movement undertaken by choice
forced migration permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factor
chain migration migration of people to a specific location because realtives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
urbanization an increase in the percentage of the number of people living in urban settlements
step migration long migration that occurs as a journey of smaller steps from one place to another until the destination is reached
undocumented immigrants people who enter a country without proper documents
guest workers workers who migrate to more developed countries of northern wand western europe or from north africa looking for higher paying jobs
refugees people who are forcedto migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, memebership is a social group or political opinion
brain drain large scale emigration by talented people
quotas in reference to migration, laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immmigrate to a country each year
antinatalist population policy restrictive policy that discourages people from having babies
pronatalist population policy expansive policy that encourages more live births in a population
eugenic population policy policy that encourages some groups of people to have babies and discriminates against other groups, discouraging their reproduction
female infanticide in response to restrictive population policies, families kill their female infants so they can try to have male babies
neo malthusians comtemporary believers in thomas malthus orginial ideas. they call for sustainable population growth to be achieved through birth control teachingd and regional attention to birth patterns
rustbelt decay of once bustling factory based economy regions of the northeast U.S
sunbelt growth of the economy in the sunny regions of the southern U.S that developedas the dominance of the factory based economy in the northeastn US decreased
U.S quota act of 1921 immigration legislation that limited the number of people from any one country and discriminated against Asians and favored European migrants
Created by: heidy
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