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What is the purpose of inflammation to localize, dilute, and/or destroy the causative agent and the injured tisue as well as repair damaged tissue
what organ produces acute phase proteins liver
what are the classic signs of acute inflammation calor, rubor, tumor, dalor and functiolaesa
where does inflammatory vasodilation begin arteriolar beds 1st
three mechanisms of vascular leakage 1) endothelial contraction 2)direct endothelial injury 3) leukoce dependent endothelial damage
Steps involved in the emigration of cells during inflammation Normal, Vasoconstriction, Vasodilation, Margination, Adhesion, Migration, and Emigration
What do Selectins do? slow the movement of leukocytes along endothelium by brief Reversible adhesive interactions or "tethering"
What does it mean to marginate to move to a position close to the endothelium
what is the most important selectin involved in rolling P-selectin
What products are responsible for slow rolling E-selectin adn CD18
What selectin is necessary for normal capture and initiation of rolling L-selectin
Where is L-selectin found on lymphocytes and neutrophils
Where is P-selectin found Platelets and Endothelium
Where are E-selectins found on activated endotheilum, neutrophils, monocytes, and activated T-cells
What molecules mediate adhesion integrins
What determines what cell types are present at the site of injury The sequence or timing of selectin/integrin/immunoglobulin expression
What is diapedesis Passage through a blood vessel
What cell type predominates in the first 24 hours of inflammation Neutrophils
what cell replaces neutrophils at 24-48 hours of inflammation Monocytes
What is chemotaxis Locomotion of cells along a chemical gradient
What are Toll-like receptors part of the inate immune response that activate leukocyts in response to different microbial products
what are chemotactic cytokines that regulate attraction of leukocytes to tissues Chemokines
What are the three steps of phagocytosis 1) recognition and attachment 2) Engulfment 3) killing
what is opsinization the process by which bacteria or foreign material is coated by plasma proteins (IgG or C3b usually)
why opsinize? it reduces electrostatic replusion and facilitates the recognition and attachment by phagocytic cells
what are the two main categories of phagocytic killing or degradation Oxygen dependent and independent
What are the majorcells involved in chronic inflammation monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells
When neutrophils fail to remove an offeding agent (indigestible particles or organisms) or when an agent is sequestered in macrophages what develops Granulomas
What are some classic examples of granulomatous inflammation Tuberculosis, Sarcoid, and fungal infections
Fever is mediated mainly by what endogenous pyrogens IL-1 and TNF-alpha which lead to IL-6 production
Overproduction of what cytokine can produce shock and cachexia TNF-alpha
What cytokines accelerate PMN release from the bone marrow IL-1 and TNF-alpha
What cytokine induces Eosinophilia IL-5
Acute phase reaction is mediated mainly by IL-? 6
A blister is an example of ? inflammation serous
inflammation of mucous membranes is also known as ? catarrhal inflammation
exudate of mucous, fibrin, inflammatory cells and necrotic debris is an example of ? type of inflammation pseudomembranous inflammation
What are two examples of vasoactive amines released from mast cells, basophils and platelets Histamine and Serotonin
Two common metabolites of arachidonic acid are? prostaglandin and leukotrienes (also known as eicosanoids)
What does NO released from endothelium and macrophages do? vasodilate, Bacteriocidal, regulator of leukocyte recruitment
What complement system involves spontaneous hydrolyzation of C3 to a modified convertase which in a series of steps involving properdin forms a C5 convertase alternative pathway
where do the two complement pathways converge C5a and C5b
what is the third "pathway" in the complement system Mannose binding lectin pathway
what forms the Membrane attack complex C5b-9
Created by: UVAPATH1