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Ch8:Commerce/Culture

Chapter 8 Flashcards

QuestionAnswer
What is one of the earliest examples of capitalism? The Silk Road
What motivates exchange? The need for goods and resources.
Why was long-distance trade so important? It linked and shaped distant societies and peoples.
How did trade change jobs? Most people were encouraged to to produce particular products that could be sold in markets.
Why were traders a distinct social group? They could became wealthy without really having to produce anything themselves.
How was political life impacted by trade? They could control and tax trade.
Other than goods, what else did merchants bring with them? Religious ides, technological innovations, diseases, and plants and animals.
How was the Silk Road 'relay trade'? Goods were passed down the line, changing hands many times before it reached its final destination.
Who laid the foundation of the idea of the Silk Roads? Nomads who traveled around on horse-back.
What was a reason the Silk roads were created? Classical civilizations were getting larger and needed more resources.
Silk Road trading networks prospered when what happened? When large, powerful states provided security for merchants and travelers.
Most often, items that made their way across the Silk Roads were for whom? The elite and wealthy.
Who held the monopoly on silk-producing technology? China
What other countries learned how to produce silk? India, Persia, Korea, and Japan.
In China, silk was associated with? The Elite
How did the Silk Roads affect peasants? Many gave up the production of their food crops to produce items that could be traded on the roads.
What religion was most carried along the Silk Roads? Buddhism, many traders were Buddhist.
Rich, Buddhist merchants could earn religious merit by? Building monasteries and supporting monks.
Why did nomadic people never popularize Buddhism amongst themselves? They moved too often and there wasn't written Buddhist teaching that they could read.
How did the Silk Roads change Buddhist monasteries? The monasteries became very lavish and wealthy.
How did the Silk Roads change Buddhism? Mahayana became more popular intsead of Theravada.
Beyond goods and cultures, what else traveled Eurasia? Diseases, where most cities had no immunities to outside sicknesses.
The Roman Empire and Han Dynasty were both affected by what diseases? Small pox and measles, which contributed to their collapse.
What disease encompassed China to Europe? The Black Plague
Disease carried by long distance trade not only affected individuals but... It altered their historical development.
Why did natives of the Americas have little immunity to Eurasian diseases? No domestic animals, less interaction with others due to their isolation.
What bodies of water were used in various forms of sea roads? Indian Ocean, Red and Black Seas, Atlantic coast, and the Mediterranean basin.
In the postclassical era what represented the world's largest sea-based system of trade? The Indian Ocean. (southern China to east Africa)
What made Indian ocean commerce possible? Monsoons
What were 'archipelago towns'? Towns with merchants who had a lot in common.
What kind of things were spread to other places with Indian Ocean commerce? Various writing forms, gold, ivory, frankincense, slaves, language, and crops.
How did sea commerce become more popular? When sailors learned how to travel by the monsoons.
What port served as the largest in this growing sea-based commerce? India
What technological innovations did the Chinese introduce to the Indian Ocean exchange? Bigger ships and the magnetic compass.
Why did Islam become popular with merchants? Islam was friendly to commercial life and Muhammad was a merchant himself.
In what ways did trade affect peoples of all religions? A Jew would trade with a Muslim and so on. There was more interaction.
In this time period what was the largest, most practiced religion? Islam
How did trade impact Southeast Asia and East Africa? In both, it stimulated political change, they gained wealth from commerce, and cities experinced cultural trade.
What was the Malay kingdom of Srivijaya? A huge point of Indian Ocean trade.
What was Srivijaya culture mostly influenced by? India.
What is Borobudur? A huge Buddhist monumental built in central Java.
What is 'Indianization'? Civilizations who involuntarily adopt India culture and traditions.
What was Swahili's main importance? It was a set of commercial city-states stretching all long the East Africa coast.
Before Swahili became invested in trade, what did their ancestors do to provide from themselves? They fished and farmed.
How were Swahili city-states were similar to Greek city-states? They were independent, governed by their own king, and feuded with their neighbors.
Swahili was a place for... merchants.
What religion ruled in Swahili? Islam
What was another southeast African city-state that came about that favored Swahili? Zimbabwe
What was another form of long distance trade, besides the Sea and Silk roads? The Sand Roads.
What civilization was the most well know of the Sand Roads? Jenne-jeno
What changed African commercial life? The camel.
What kind of products came from the Sahara? Gold, ivory, kola nuts, slaves, horses, cloth, and salt.
The Sahara soon became? A major international trade route.
Long distance trade in the Sahara provided what? Incentive and resources for the construction of new and larger political structures.
Civilizations that were made from the trans-Saharan exchange were... monarchies and drew upon the wealth of the trans-Saharan trade.
In West Africa what did male slaves do? They were state officials, porters, craftsmen, miners, and farmers.
The slaves from West Africa were traded along? The Sahara.
Many cities in Sudanic Africa developed substantial urban and commercial centers where... traders congregated and goods were exchanged.
Why wasn't there a lot of direct connection between civilizations in Mesoamerica? There wasn't a way to travel and the geography made it difficult.
Created by: 1213RachelBlair