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REL 2300

Midterm 2

QuestionAnswer
Torah Also, called the Pentateuch, it is the first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible.
Biblical stories Story of Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, etc.
The Maccabean Revolt the successful rebellion established a new and independent kingdom, once again called Israel, once again centered around Jerusalem, and ruled by the Hasmonean family.
Synagogues meeting places to read the Torah and to worship communally, praying simply and directly to God
Rabbi They were teachers, religious decision-makers, and creators of liturgical prayer.
Mishnah/Talmud/Midrash Midrash: the process of studying and thoroughly interpreting Hebrew scriptures; Talmud: a vast compendium of law, Midrash, and argument; Mishnah: Judah the Prince completed a terse edition of legal teachings of the oral Torah
Orthodox Judaism They strictly follow the rules of the Torah; They do their services in Hebrew; They eat Kosher; They don’t wear mixed fabrics; They segregate themselves from the secular world; They are heavily patriarchal;
Hasidism They have a more positive outlook on life; They have a more personal relationship with God; They’re traditional but adapt to time; They are more strict than Orthodox; They’re isolationists; There’s an emphasis on simplicity, joy, love, and prayer
Reform Judaism They don’t believe in the forbidden foods of the Torah; They believe in scientific research; They’re open to change; They’re the first group to ordain women and gays as rabbis; They’re connected to Orthodox; They’re open to converts
The Trefa Banquet A banquet between Reform and Orthodox Jews meant to connect the two movements but when non kosher (trefa) food was served, Orthodox Jews got offended and left.
Conservative Judaism They are in the middle of Orthodox and Reform; They are more conservative towards historical practices like worship; They are open to modern issues like dress; They change with the times because look at something’s historical weights;
Reconstructionist Judaism They’re shaped from science and don’t believe in God; They’re only in America; They believe that traditional can’t reconcile with modern; They created a new bible that’s more politically correct; They’re not very popular;
The Shoah / Holocaust the murder of almost 6 million European Jews by the Nazi leadership of Germany during World War II.
Responses to the Shoah After the tragic event, many Jews began to question their faith and how God could allow such a horrible thing to happen to them so many converted to Jewish Buddhism.
Kosher ritually acceptable foods
Sabbath observed as an eternal sign of the covenant between the Jews and God
Yom Kippur renewing the sacred covenant with God in spirit of atonement and cleansing
Hanukkah the Feast of Dedication
Passover it celebrates the liberation from bondage in Egypt and the springtime advent of new life.
Zionism places central emphasis on resettlement of the Jewish people in Israel as the working out of a divine plan for the salvation not only of Jews but also for the whole world
Jesus the proposed Son of God who served as the Messiah for everyone's sins.
Baptism a ritual where Christians are "born again" and cleansed of their sins
Eucharist the eating and drinking of bread and wine as a representation of Jesus' body and blood as instructed at the Last Supper
Paul was a Jew who had originally persecuted the followers of Jesus but later accepted Jesus as the Messiah after a supposed ecstatic experience of the resurrected Jesus. Paul is responsible for spreading early Christianity.
Gnosticism mystical perception of knowledge; held that only spiritually mature individuals could apprehend Jesus’ real teaching: that the Kingdom of Heaven is a present reality experienced through personal realization of the Light.
canon also known as the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.
Constantine The first leader of the Roman Empire to convert to Christianity and stop its persecution
Orthodox Christianity Christians in Constantinople thought the bishop or patriarch (a Greek word meaning father and also an office in the church) of Constantinople should have just as much authority as the bishop of Rome.
Icons stylized paintings of Jesus, his mother Mary, and the saints; some icons are reported to have great spiritual powers, heal illnesses, and transmit the holy presence
The Inquisition an ecclesiastical court set up during the 1230s to investigate and suppress heresy; he medieval Inquisition used torture with the idea that one should torture the body to save the spirit; and to convert Jews/Muslims to Christianity
The Catholic Reformation attempted to legislate moral reform among the clergy, to tighten the Church administration, and to recognize officially the absolute authority of the pope as the early vicar of God and Jesus and Christ.
Sacraments and Worship Services Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches observe seven sacraments: Baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, holy orders, and matrimony. ;Protestant Churches observe two sacraments: Baptism and Eucharist. Liturgy is in a public place
Second Vatican Council The Church’s bishops discussed the liturgy, the identity of the Church, the relationship of the Church to the World, the relationship of Catholicism with other religions, the question of religious freedom, and the role of the women and men.
The Protestant Reformation A movement in sixteenth-century Europe designed to make changes in Catholic teaching and practice. They believed in the priesthood of all believers, salvation by faith, double predestination, and holy commonwealths.
Martin Luther was a monk, priest, and Professor of Biblical Studies at the University of Wittenberg who disagreed with the Catholic church's practices, so he nailed his theses to the church door and was excommunicated.
John Calvin shared the reform principles of salvation by faith alone, the exclusive authority of the Bible, and the “priesthood of all believers."
Henry VIII The Pope denied Henry a divorce, so Henry passed the Act of Supremacy which founded the (Anglican) Church of England with Henry as it's official head.
Fundamentalism Five points: biblical inerrancy, virgin birth of christ, substitutionary atonement, bodily resurrection, and authenticity of miracles.
Liturgical year and holidays Epiphany celebrates the recognition of Jesus’ spiritual kingship by the 3 Magi; Lent is the forty-day period of repentance and fasting leading up to Easter; Advent is supposed to be a time of joyous anticipation in the month leading up to Christmas;
Muhammad considered by Muslims to be the last of a continuing chain of prophets who have come to restore the true religion
Mecca The place of pilgrimage where Muslims are required to visit at least once in their lives in remembrance of Muhammad and other important Islamic traditions.
the Ka'bah According to Muslim tradition, Abraham and his Ishmael had created the Ka’bah as a place of pilgrimage, and others had corrupted it. Muhammad’s cleansing is seen as a restoration of the original purpose of the Ka’bah
The hijrah hijrah (emigration from Mecca to Medina) is start of Islamic calendar. Dates are written as AH “year of the hijrah."
Medina After the emigration Muhammad became the religious and political leader of Medina. It is also in Medina that the ummah (Muslim community) really began to develop.
Qur'an the sacred book of Islam which is divided into 114 chapters (sutras); teaches that God’s original messages have been added to and distorted by humans;
Caliphates Orthodox (632-661) - Golden Age: Arabian peninsula; Umayyads (661-750) - Damascus: spread from Spain to China; Abbasids (750-1258) - Persian: high point of culture; Ottomans (1299-1922) - Istanbul: synthesis of culture.
Sunni Islam consider themselves traditionalists, and they emphasize the authority of the Qur’an and the Hadith and Sunnah. They believe that Muhammad died without appointing a successor and left the matter of successors to the ummah – “the Muslim community”
Shi'a Islam feel that ‘Ali was the rightful original successor to the Prophet Muhammad; pay allegiance to a succession of seven or twelve Imams (leaders, guides): The Twelfth Imam, was commanded by God to hide to continue to guide the people.
Sufism involved resistance to the legalistic, intellectual trends within Islam in its early development; Sufis consider their way a path to God that is motivated by longing for the One
Five Pillars of Islam 1st: professing your faith; 2nd: continual round of prayers (5/day); 3rd: charity; 4th: fasting during Ramadan; 5th: pilgrimage to Mecca.
Shari'ah The sacred law of Islam based on the Qur’an and Sunnah of Muhammad, who was the first to apply the generalizations of the Qur’an to specific life situations
Hadith the stories of Muhammad’s life and his sayings
Mosque places of worship that have four essential features: a fountain for washing hands and feet, a large area for prayer, a pulpit for Friday sermons, and a mihrab which is a niche in the middle of the wall closest to Mecca indicating the direction of prayer
Jihad "striving/struggling"; The first is the inner jihad: the attempt to make oneself right with God. The other type of jihad is outer jihad or the struggle to make one’s society more Islamic.
Islamic Fundamentalism A belief in the unchangeableness and finality of certain interpretations of the Qur’an and Islamic law;
Wahhabism believed that Arabia had degenerated to the level of pre-Islam and that Sufi religious practices had participated in this. He wanted to purify Islam from all the “un-Islamic” practices.
Islamic Revolution in Iran Relationship between the Shah and the West (CIA); Khomeini exiled; Student-led revolt; Islamic republic
Nation of Islam goals are to improve the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African Americans in the United States and all of humanity
Malcolm X Best known advocate of Nation of Islam in 50s and 60s
Date of First Jewish Temple destroyed 586 BCE
Date of Maccabean Revolt 167 BCE
Date of Second Jewish Temple destroyed 70 CE
Date of Jesus birth/crucifixion 4 BCE - 0CE; 27-33CE
Date of split between Western and Eastern Orthodox Churches 1054 CE
Date of Muhammad's birth 570 CE
Date of Revelation of the Qur'an begins 610 CE
Date of the hijrah 622 CE
Created by: JacobGant
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