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Unit 2 Roseanna

AP Human Geography 4B

QuestionAnswer
Age Distribution (Population pyramid) is two back-to-back bar graphs, one showing the number of males and one showing females in a particular population in five-year age groups.
Carry capacity This is the population level that can be supported, given the quantity of food, habitat, water and other life infrastructure present.
Cohort Population of various age categories in an age-sex population pyramids.
Demographic equation The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration.
Demographic momentum This is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution.
Demographic regions Cape Verde is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark is in Stage 4 (Low Growth). This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition.
Demographic Transition model Stage 1 is low growth, Stage 2 is High Growth, Stage 3 is Moderate Growth, and Stage 4 is Low Growth and Stage 5 is a possible stage that includes zero or negative population group. This is the way countries are transformed from a LDC to a MDC.
Dependency ratio The number of people who are too you or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years.
Diffusion of fertility control The diffusion of fertility control is spread throughout the world. This is important because its shows how many kids a mother is having thus helping to see where the countries are growing rapidly and where countries are leveling off.
Disease diffusion There are two types, contagious and hierarchical. Hierarchical is along high density areas that spread from urban to rural areas. Contagious is spread through the density of people.
Doubling time The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Ecumene The proportion of earths surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Epidemiological transition model This is a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. This is important because it can explain how a countries population changes so dramatically and more.
Gendered space areas or regions designed for men or women
Infant mortality rate (IMR) The annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births. It is expressed as the annual number of deaths among infants among infants per 1000 births rather than a percentage.
J-curve This is when the projection population show exponential growth; sometimes shape as a j-curve. If the population grows exponential our resource use will go up exponential and so will our use as well as a greater demand for food and more.
Maladaption This is an adaptation that has become less helpful than harmful. This relates to human geography because it has become more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on. Which shows as the world changes so do the things surrounding it.
Malthus, Thomas One of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population. He brought up the point that we may be outrunning our supplies because of our exponentially growing population.
Mortality There are two useful ways to measure mortality; infant mortality rate and life expectancy.
Natality Crude Birth Rate) This is the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; it is expressed as number of birth in year to every 1000 people alive in the society.
Neo-malthusian Theory that builds upon Malthus’ thoughts on overpopulation. Takes into count two factors that Malthus did not: population growth in LDC’s, and outstripping of resources other than food
Overpopulation Relationship between the number of people on Earth, and the availability of resources
Population densities The frequency with which something occurs in space is density (arithmetic, physiological, and agricultural)
Population distributions The arrangement of a feature in space is distribution. Geographers identify the three main properties as density, concentration, and pattern
Population explosion A sudden increase or burst in the population in either a certain geographical area or worldwide
Population projection Predicts the future population of an area or the world
Population pyramid Population displayed by age and gender on a bar graph
Rate of natural increase The percentage by which a population grows in a year
S-curve Traces the cyclical movement upwards and downwards in a graph
Sex ratio The number of males per hundred females in the population
Standard of living Refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way they are distributed within a population
Sustainability Providing the best outcomes for human and natural environments both in the present and for the future
Underpopulation It is the opposition to overpopulation and refers to a sharp drop or decrease in a region’s population
Zero population growth When the crude birth rate equals the crude death rate and the natural increase rate approaches zero.
Activity space Space allotted for a certain industry or activity
Chain migration When one family member migrates to a new country and the rest of the family follows shortly after
Cyclic movement Trends in migration and other processes that have a clear cycle
Distance Decay When contact between two groups diminishes because of the distance between them
Forced Migration People removed from there countries and forced to live in other countries because of war, natural disaster, and government.
Gravity Model Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.
Internal Migration Permanent movement within a particular country
Intervening Opportunity An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that helps migration
Migration Patterns Intercontinental, interregional, rural-urban, migratory movement, periodic movement
Intercontinental Permanent movement from one country to a different country on the same continent
Interregional Permanent movement from one region of the country to another
Rural-Urban Permanent movement from suburbs and rural area to the urban city area
Migratory Movement Movement that consists of one or more persons migrating from one place to another
Periodic Movement Movement that involves temporary, recurrent relocation
Personal Space The surrounding area over which a person makes some claim to privacy
Place Utility Adding value to products by having them where people want them
Push-Pull Factors Factors that induce people to leave old residence and move to new locations
Refugee People forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in social group, or political opinion
Space-Time Prism A diagram of the volume of space and the length of time within which our activities are confined by constraints of our bodily needs and the means of mobility at our command
Step Migration A migration in which an eventual long distance relocation is undertaken in stages
Transhumance Seasonal migration of live stock between mountains and lowland pasture areas
Transmigration Movement that consists of one person migrating from one place to another
Voluntary Movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity; not forced.
Created by: rbanana