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Unit 2 Vocab

Human Geography vocabulary for unit 2

Age Distribution (Population pyramid) is two back-to-back bar graphs, one showing the number of males and one showing females in a particular population in five-year age groups.
Carry capacity This is the population level that can be supported, given the quantity of food, habitat, water and other life infrastructure present.
Cohort Population of various age categories in an age-sex population pyramids. This is important because this can tell what state this country it is whether in Stage 3 or Stage 5 in the demographic transition model
Demographic equation The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration.
Demographic momentum this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model
Demographic regions Cape Verde is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark is in Stage 4 (Low Growth).
Demographic Transition model Has 5 steps. Stage 1 is low growth, Stage 2 is High Growth, Stage 3 is Moderate Growth, and Stage 4 is Low Growth and Stage 5 although not officially a stage is a possible stage that includes zero or negative population group.
Dependency ratio The number of people who are too you or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years. This is important because this tells how many people each worker supports.
Diffusion of fertility control The diffusion of fertility control is spread throughout the world. In the U.S it’s below 2.1 in much of Africa it is above 4, if South America is between 2 and 3, in Europe it is below 2.1, and in China and Russia it is below 2.1.
Disease diffusion There are two types, contagious and hierarchical. Hierarchical is along high density areas that spread from urban to rural areas. Contagious is spread through the density of people.
Doubling time The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. This is important because it can help project the countries population increase over the years and when its population will double
Ecumene The proportion of earths surface occupied by permanent human settlement. This is important because its tells how much of the land has been built upon and how much land is left for us to build on
Epidemiological transition model This is a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. This is important because it can explain how a countries population changes so dramatically and more
Infant mortality rate (IMR) The annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births. Its is expressed as the annual number of deaths among infants among infants per 1000 births rather than a percentage.
J-curve This is when the projection population show exponential growth; sometimes shape as a j-curve.
Maladaption This is an adaptation that has become less helpful than harmful. This relates to human geography because it has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on.
Malthus, Thomas Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population.
Mortality There are two useful ways to measure mortality; infant mortality rate and life expectancy. The IMR reflect a country’s health care system and life expectancy measures the average number of years a baby can expect to live.
Natality(Crude Birth Rate) This is the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; it is expressed as number of birth in year to every 1000 people alive in the society.
Neo-malthusian theory that builds upon Malthus’ thoughts on overpopulation. Takes into count two factors that Malthus did not: population growth in LDC’s, and outstripping of resources other than food
Overpopulation relationship between the number of people on Earth, and the availability of resources Problems result when an area’s population exceeds the capacity of the environment to support them at an acceptable standard of living
Population densities the frequency with which something occurs in space is density *Arithmetic density: total number of objects in an area. Used to compare distribution of population in certain areas
Population distributions the arrangement of a feature in space is distribution. Geographers identify the three main properties as density, concentration, and pattern Used to describe how things and people are distributed across the earth
Population explosion a sudden increase or burst in the population in either a certain geographical area or worldwide Occurred in the late 18th and early 19th centuries because several countries moved on to stage 2 of the DTM. Can trace factors that lead to these explosions
Population projection predicts the future population of an area or the world. Helps predict future problems with population such as overpopulation or under population of a certain race or ethnicity
Population pyramid population displayed by age and gender on a bar graph Shape is determined primarily by crude birth rate. Shows age distribution and sex ratio
Rate of natural increase the percentage by which a population grows in a year. CBR-CDR = NIR Excludes migration Affects the population and a country’s or area’s ability to support that population
S-curve traces the cyclical movement upwards and downwards in a graph. So named for its shape as the letter "s" Relates to growth and decline in the natural increase
Sex ratio the number of males per hundred females in the population Depends on birth and death rates, immigration. Men have higher death rates but also higher birth rates. Immigration usually means more males because they can make the journey
Standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way they are distributed within a population Higher standards of living are found in MDC’s rather than LDC’s. Can help trace development
Sustainability providing the best outcomes for human and natural environments both in the present and for the future Relates to development that meets today’s needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Underpopulation it is the opposition to overpopulation and refers to a sharp drop or decrease in a region’s population. Unlike overpopulation, it does not refer to resources but to having enough people to support the local economic system.
Zero population growth when the crude birth rate equals the crude death rate and the natural increase rate approaches zero. Often applied to countries in stage 4 of the demographic transition model
Activity space space allotted for a certain industry or activity Can apply to an area within a city or surrounding a central place
Chain migration when one family member migrates to a new country and the rest of the family follows shortly after Mostly seen from Mexico to the United States when guest workers set up homes and make money for their family to follow them
Cyclic movement- trends in migration and other processes that have a clear cycle
Distance Decay- When contact between two groups diminishes because of the distance between them
Forced Migration People removed from there countries and forced to live in other countries because of war, natural disaster, and government
Gravity Model Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it
Internal Migration Permanent movement within a particular country
Intervening Opportunity An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that helps migration
Intercontinental Permanent movement from one country to a different country on the same continent
Interregional Permanent movement from one region of the country to another
Rural-Urban Permanent movement from suburbs and rural area to the urban city area
Push-Pull Factors Factors that induce people to leave old residence and move to new locations
Refugee- People forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in social group, or political opinion
Transhumance- Seasonal migration of live stock between mountains and lowland pasture areas
Created by: 100001598808561
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