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Urinary System

Body Functions Chapter 17

The functions of the kidneys include: (1 to 3) 1. Removal of nitrogenous (N) wastes from the blood 2. Maintaining blood volume and electrolyte (salt) balance. 3. Maintaining pH balance of the blood acidity vs. alkalinity (base) by the interaction of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate (HCO3).
Nitrogenous (N) wastes include a. Urea. b. Uric acid. c. Creatinine. d. Ammonia (NH3).
The electrolytes (“lytes”) include: a. Sodium (Na+). b. Potassium (K+). c. Chloride (Cl -). d. Calcium (Ca+). e. Phosphate (PO4 -). f. Magnesium (Mg+). g. Sulfate (SO4 -)
Remember, where salt goes, water follows.
Healthy adults need no more than 2300 mg of Na+ daily
Maintaining pH balance of the blood acidity vs. alkalinity (base) by the interaction of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate (HCO3).
The function of the kidneys include: (4 to 6) 4. Production of renin which will regulate blood pressure (BP). 5. Production of erythropoietin which aids in erythrocyte (RBC) formation. 6. Conversion of vitamin D into its active form called calciferol.
Conversion of vitamin D into its active form called calciferol.
The paired kidneys are located in the retroperitoneal (flank) region.
The right kidney is slightly lower than the left due to the large area occupied by the liver
A kidney is the size of a fist
The outer covering of each kidney is called the renal capsule.
The outermost layer is called the renal cortex.
The middle layer is called the renal medulla
A thin layer of fibrous connective tissue that anchors each kidney to surrounding structures and the abdominal wall is called renal fascia.
The tubes (vessels, ducts) that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder are called ureters
Each ureter connects to a kidney at a renal pelvis.
Each renal pelvis is made up of funnel shaped structures called calices (calyx).
Kidney cells are called nephrons
Each kidney has approximately 1,000,000 nephrons.
The vessels carrying oxygenated blood to be filtered by the kidneys are called the right and left renal arteries.
The vessels carrying deoxygenated blood away from the kidneys are called the right and left renal veins.
Every minute approximately _________mL of blood passes through the kidneys. 1200
The fluid that the kidneys ultimately eliminate from the body is called urine
Normal urine is: 1. Clear or yellow. 2. Clean (free of pathogens).
A routine test performed on urine is called a urinalysis (U/A).
Normal urine production is approximately 56 mL/hour
Urine is transported from each renal pelvis to the urinary bladder primarily by peristalsis
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ located posterior to the pubic symphysis
The average capacity of the urinary bladder is 700 - 800 mL.
Stretch receptors in the bladder wall will transmit nerve impulses to the lower portion of the spinal cord when the urine level reaches 200 - 400 mL.
These impulses initiate the conscious desire to urinate (micturition) or void (micturate).
The sphincters that control the flow of urine are called the internal and external urinary (urethral) sphincters.
The inability to control the urinary (urethral) sphincters is called enuresis or urinary incontinence.
The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside world
The opening of the urethra to the outside world is called the urinary meatus (orifice or os).
In females the urethra is approximately 1.5 inches long.
The female urinary meatus is located between the clitoris and vaginal orifice.
In males the urethra is approximately 8 inches long.
The male urinary meatus is located at the distal portion of the glans penis
In males the urethra carries: 1. Urine. 2. Spermatozoa. 3. Semen.
The reproductive and urinary systems are referred to as the genitourinary (GU) system.
Blood tests commonly used to detect nitrogenous (N) waste include: 1. BUN (blood urea nitrogen). 2. Creatinine clearance (Cc). 3. Cystatin C (Cys C).
IVP stands for intravenous pyelogram.
An intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is an X-ray of the renal pelves after injection of an intravenous (IV) radiopaque dye
hematuria a condition of blood in the urine (trauma)
pyuria a condition of pus in the urine (infection)
bacteriuria bacteria in the urine
glycosuria a condition of sugar (glucose) in the urine (DM)
ketonuria a condition of ketones (acetone) in the urine (fat metabolism)
albuminuria albumin (blood protein) in the urine
hemodialysis (HD) artificial removal of toxins from the blood
CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
Created by: willowsalem