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Ch. 8 HG

Ch. 8 Vocab/Main ideas

QuestionAnswer
State Politically org. TERRITORY with permanent pop., territory, gov. .
Nation Culturally defined group of PEOPLE withed shared past/common future, group of people with shared culture/mindset/character/language.
Nation-state Politically org. TERRITORY whose PEOPLE have same cultural similaritties ("Iceland"/"Japan").
Democracy Idea that people are the ultimate sovereignty
Multinational State State with more than one nation inside its borders
Multistate Nation When a nation stretches across borders/states
Stateless Nation Lack of fit between nations/states, when nations don't have a state (ex: Palestine)
Colonialism Leaders taking over colonies ruthlessly
Capitalism When the world economy, people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them for profit
Commodification Process of placing a price on a good then selling it
World-systems (Wallerstein) Theory View (1) World economy has 1 market/1 global division of labor (2) Although world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within context of world economy (3) The world economy has 3-tier structure (core/periphery/semi-periphery)
Territorial Representative Each representative elected by a territory defined by a district
Reapportionment Process by which districts are moved according to pop. shift so that each district has app. the same pop.
Majority-minority Districts When the majority of a district's pop. is the minority of the overall nation/state
Gerrymandering "Redistricting for advantage"
Boundary Actual vertical plane that cuts through rocks/soil below
Supernational Organization Separate entity composed of 3 or more states that forge an association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefit in pursuit of shared goals
Shatterbelt Diversified peoples/regions split up
Irredentism Unredeemed territory
Unitary State Highly centralized gov., gov. has all the power and rules all the states, political sub-units not very important
Federal State Federal gov. gets into states' business but allows each state to keep own identity and remain diverse
Centrifugal Forces within state that divide (language, religion, physical geo.).
Centripital Forces that bring us together (language, religion, edu.).
Devolution Seeding of power from regional gov. to sub-state gov. .
Unilaterism One power controlling.
Multilaterlism Multiple powers combining together (allies).
Organic Theory (Ratzel) Countries are like an organism.
Exclave Fragmented piece of sovereign territory separated by land from the main part of a state's territory.
Enclave Minority culture group concentrated inside a country that's dominated by a different/larger culture group.
Territorial Sea Sovereign territory includes the area of sea from shore out to the 12-nautical-mile limit.
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)- Exclusive economic rights from shore out to 200-nautical-mile limit (200-nautical miles to include continental shelf).
Theocracy Using religion/holy texts to rule land.
Heartland Theory (Mackinder) hypothesis proposed by halford mackinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
Balkanization To break up (as a region or group) into smaller and often hostile units.
Created by: olivia.tay