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3rd Unit

Endocrine System

Fuctions of Endocrine System Produce, store, and release hormones for metabolism, reproduction, growth, and development
Pituitary gland pea size gland located at the base of the brain; consists of 2 lobes (anterior and posterior); the hypothalamus controls release of hormones from this gland
Hormones released by pituitary gland- anterior lobe - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - Growth hormone (GH) - Luteinizing hormone (LH) - Prolactin - Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) regulates the ovaries and testicles; stimulates secretion of estrogen in females and sperm production in males
growth hormone (GH) regulates body growth
luteinizing hormone (LH) stimuates secretion of progesterone in females and testosterone in males
prolactin stimulates milk production
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates the thyroid gland
Hormones released by pituitary gland- posterior lobe - Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) - Oxytocin
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stimulates water absorption by the kidneys
Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions
Thyroid Gland Gland with two lobes, located below the larynx; it is the largest endocrine gland
Hormones Released by thyroid gland Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) - both regulates metabolism
Parathyroid glands four small glands located behind the thyroid
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) released by parathyroid gland. Regulates calcium and phosphorus levels in blood and bones
Islets of Langerhans Endocrine cells inside the pancreas
Insulin released by islets of Langerhans. Regulates blood glucose levels
Thymus gland gland located in the mediastinum
Thymosin Released by thymus gland. Regulates immune response
Adrenal glands pairs of glands located on top of the kidneys; each gland consists of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla
Adrenal cortex outer portion of the adrenal gland
Aldosterone Released by adrenal cortex. Regulates electrolyte levels
Cortisol Released by adrenal cortex. Aids in metabolism and also aids the body during stress
Adrenal medulla inner portion of the gland
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Released by adrenal medulla. Aid body during stress by raising heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration
Ovaries female reproductive glands attached to the uterus
Estrogen and progesterone Released by the ovaries. Affect the development of female sexual organs and secondary sexual characteristics; regulate menstrual cycle and pregnancy
Testes male reproductive glands located in teh scrotum
Testosterone released by the testes. Affects development of sexual organs in males and secondary sexual characteristics
acr/o extremity, top
aden/o gland
adren/o , adrenal/o adrenal glands
calc/i calcium
cortic/o cortex
crin/o to secrete
dips/o thrist
endocrin/o endocrine
gluc/o , glucos/o , glyc/o , glycos/o glucose, sugar
hormon/o hormone
kal/i potassium
natr/i sodium
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid glands
thym/o thymus gland
thyr/o , thyroid/o thyroid gland
-megaly enlargement
-oid resembling
-penia deficiency
eu- good, normal
hyper- above, excessive
hypo- below, deficient
poly- many, much
euthyroid normal thyroid
endogenous produced inside the body
exogenous produced outside of the body
metabolism all physical and chemical changes that occur in tissue
Abnormal conditions of the thyroid gland - Hyper or Hypo - Goiter - Nodule
Abnormal conditions of the adrenal cortex cushing
Abnormal conditions of the adrenal medulla phenochromocytoma
Abnormal conditions of the pancreas - Hypoglycemia - DM : Type 1-IDDM / Type 2-NIDDM
Abnormal condition of the pituitary gland acromegaly
adenitis inflammation of a gland
adenomegaly enlargement of a gland
endocrinopathy disease of an endocrine gland
acromegaly enlargement of the extremities caused by excessive production of growth hormone
diabetes insipidus (DI) disorder caused by deficiency of antidiuretic hormone production by the pituitary gland resulting in excessive urination and ecessive thirst
gigantism condition of excessive body growth caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland
thyroiditis inflammation of the thyroid gland
thyromegaly enlargement of the thyroid gland
hyperthyroidism excessive hormone production by the thyroid gland
goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland
Graves disease condition of excessive secretion of the thyroid hormone causing goiter and exophthalmos
thyrotoxicosis condition of excessive high levels of thyroid hormone
Hashimoto thyroiditis, Hashimoto disease autoimmune disease causing chronic thyroidis
hypothyroidism deficient hormone production by the thyroid gland
myxedema severe hypothyroidism in an adult characterized by pale dry skin, brittle hair, and sluggishness
Addison disease disease caused by deficiency of cortisol production by the adrenal glands
adrenopathy disease of the adrenal gland
Cushing syndrome disease caused by excessive cortisol production by the adrenal glands
Diabetes mellitus (DM) disorder caused by deficiency of insulin and/or insulin resistance
Type I diabetes mellitus diabetes caused by a total lack of insulin production
Type II diabetes mellitus diabetes caused by either a lack of insulin or the body's inability to use insulin efficiently
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) excessive ketones in blood due to breakdown of stored fats for energy; a complication of diabetes mellitus; if left untreated, can lead to coma and death (when no insulin to break glucose for energy, will begin to break fats, leading to byproduct ketone)
Blood glucose, blood sugar test to measure the amount of glucose in the blood
fasting blood glucose (FBG) blood test that measures the amount of glucose in the blood after fasting for at least 8 hours
glucometer device for measuring blood glucose levels from a drop of blood obtained by a fingerstick
glucose tolerance test (GTT) blood test that measures the amount of glucose in the blood after administering a dose of glucose to the patient; used to gauge the body's ability to metabolize glucose
glycosylated hemoglobin (HgAlC) blood test that indicates the amount of glucose in the blood over the previous months; used to indicate how well diabetes mellitus is being controlled
thyroid function tests blood tests that measure thyroid hormone levels in the blood
thyroid-stimulating hormone blood test that measures the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the blood; used to diagnosis hyperthyroidism or to monitor thyroid replacement therapy
thyroxine level blood test that measures the amount of thyroxine in the blood to diagnose hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism
radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) test of thyroid function by measuring the uptake of iodine by the thyroid
thyroid scan scan of the thyroid gland using a radioactive substance, ultrasound, or computed tomography to show the size, shape, and position of the thyroid gland
adenectomy excision of a gland
adrenalectomy excision of an adrenal gland
pancreatectomy excision of the pancreas
thyroidectomy excision of the thyroid gland
thyroidotomy incision into a thyroid gland
thyroparathyroidectomy excision of the thyroid and parathyroid glands
antidiabetic used to treat diabetes mellitus
antithyroid used to treat overproduction of thyroid hormone
continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, insulin pump (CSII) used to treat diabetes mellitus with insulin via pump
insulin therapy used to treat diabetes mellitus
hormone replacement therapy used to replace a hormone normally produced by the body
endocrinology medical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the endocrine system
endocrinologist physician who specializes in endocrinology
Created by: Elaine3w