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Chapter 4

Unit 2

QuestionAnswer
Why is the U.S. compared to Rome? We have an enormous mulitcultural society, technological achievements, economically draining and overstretched armed forces, a sense of being unique and having a global mission, concern about invading foreigners, and maintaind military superiority.
What is an empire? States that conquer, rule, and extract resources from other states and peoples. They usually encompass a variety of peoples and cultures within a single political system.
Why did most civilizations never encounter one another? What is the exception to this? They each established their own political systems, cultural values, and ways of organizing society. Exception is Perisan Empire and Greeks.
Where was the Persian Empire and who lived there? Indo Europeans lived there. It lay on the Iranian plateau just north of the Persian Gulf. It was on the margins of the earlier Mesopotamia civilization.
Who were the famous monarch of the Persian Empire? First Cyrus, then Darius.
What did Persian conquests do? REached from Egypt to India, encompassing 35 million people of different states, languages, and cultural traditions.
What did the Persian empire center on? An elaborate cult of kingship in which the monarch could only be approached through an elaborate ritual.
Who did Persian kings rule by? What were Persian kings? Ruled by the will of the god Ahura Mazda. Kings were absolute monarchs, willing to crush rebellious regions and officials.
What did the administrative system in Persia do? Placed Persian governors called satraps in each of the empire's 32 provinces. Lower level officials were drwan from local authorites, and spies were the eyse and ears of the king.
What did Persia have a general policy of respect for? The empire's many non-Persian cultural traditions.
How did Cyrus win the gratitude of the Jews? He allowed those exiled in Babylon to return to their homeland and rebuild their temple in Jerusalem.
How did Persian kings gain support from followers and officials? By upholding local religious cults.
What in Persia provided a model for subsequent regions, including the Islamic world? Their imperial bureaucracy and court life, which included administrators, tax collectors, record keepers, and translators.
What was the infrastructure of the Persian Empire? A system of standardized coinage, predictable taxes on each province, and a newly dug canal linking the Nile to the red Sea, which greatly expanded commerce. They also had a royal road.
What did the royal road in Persian do? Made communication and commerce across the vast empire easier.
How did the U.S. use the description of the imperial Persian postal system? It was adopted as the unofficial motto for out postal service.
Where was the immense wealth and power of Persia reflected? In the construction of elaborate imperial centers, particulary the Susa and Persepolis.
What Persian leader was in charge of Persepolis? Darius
What was the geography of Greek civilization? It was on a small peninsula, deeply divided by steep mountains and valleys.
What people made up Greece? What did the Greeks call themselves? Indo-Europeans. Hellenes.
How was Greee different from Persia? Greece had hundreds of small city-states and settlements, and had a population of just 2-3 million.
How were the city-states in Greece similar? What were they like? City-states were independent and in conflict with one another. Yet they spoke the same language, and worshipped the same gods. They also participated in the Olympic Games together every 4 years.
How did Greeks expand? By settlement. Greek traders in search of iron and farmers in search of land settled on the Mediterranean basin and the rim of the Black sea.
What did Greek settlers bring with them? And what was it in spite if? Greek culture, language, and building styles, even though they fought, traded, and intermarried with non-Greek neighbors.
What was the most distictive feature of Greek civilization? The popular participation in political life occuring in some of the city-states. They had the idea of citizenship, free people running state affairs, and equality for all.
How did who had the rights to citizenship change in Greek civilization? At first, only the wealthy and well-born could speak and vote in assembly, hold public office, and fight in the army. Gradually , middle and lowre class men, mostly small-scale farmers, obtained these rights too.
What are hoplites? A heavily armed Greek infantryman.
What was the broadening of political rights in Greece associated with? The growing number of men able to afford the armor and weapons allowing them serve as hoplites.
What is a tyrant? A strong and well-meaning ruler who usually had the support of the poorer classes.
What is Spart famous for? Its extreme forms of military discipline and large population of helots.
What are helots? Conquered peopled who lived in slavelike conditions.
What is the Council of Elders? The group that had the most political authority in Sparta. It was composed of 28 men over 60, who came from the wealthy and influential part of society. They served for life and provided political leadership.
Who was Solon? A reforming leader who pushed Athenian politics in a more democratic direction, breaking the hold of a small group of aristocratic families.
What happened after Solon pushed Athenian government in a democratic direction? Debt slavery was abolished, access to public office was opened to a wider group of men, and all citizens were allowed to take part in the Assembly.
What later reformers helped to extend the rights of Athenian citizens even farther? Pericles and Cleisthenes.
What become the center of political life in Athens? The Assembly, where all citizens could participate.
How was Athenian democracy different from modern democracy? It was direct and limited, instead of representative. Women, slaves, and foreigners, over 1/2 the population, were excluded.
What was the collision of the Greeks and Persians called? The Greco-Persian Wars.
What were the Greco-Persian wars? Greek settlements came under Persian control. Some revolted, which angered the Persians, so twice, they launched military expeditions to punish the Greeks, particularly Athens. The greeks defeated them on land and sea.
Who won the Greco-Persian Wars? The Greeks
What did the defeat of the Greco-Persian Wars do to Persia? It had little effect. It was just embarrassing.
What did the victory of the Greco-Persian Wars do for Greece? It gave them enormous pride, radicalized Athenian democracy, and started the notion of the East/West divide.
How did the Greek's victory in the Greco-Persian Wars radicalize Athenian democracy? It had been men of the poorer classes who rowed their ships to victory, and now they were in a position to insist on full citizenship.
What occurred during the 50 years after the Greco Persian Wars? The high point of Athenian democracy and the Golden Age of Greek culture.
What happened during the Golden Age of Greek culture? The Parthenon, a marvelous temple, was built, Greek theater was born, Socrates began his philosophy career, and statesman Pericles gave a famous speech.
What were the causes and effects of the Peloponnesian War? After the Greco-Persian Wars, Athens wanted to prove it was the leader of the city-states. Sparts wanted independene and fought back, which led to a civil war. Sparta won, depleting both sides and lead to the eventual takeover of Macedonia by Phlip 2.
Who was Phillips II's son,and what was he prepared to do during the second round in the collision of Greece and Persia? Alexander, prepared to lead a massive expedition against the Persian Empire.
Why did Alexander's project of leading a Greek expedition against Persia appeal to people? It would be revenge on for the earlier Persian assault on Greece and would help unify the Greeks in a war against their common enemy.
What did Alexander's expedition accomplish? It created a Greek empire from Egypt and Anatolia in the west to Afghanistan and India in the east. The Persian Empire was also defeated and its capital, Persepolis, was burned and looted.
What did Alexander become after defeating Persia? He became pharaoh and was declared the son of the gods.
What happened when Alexander died? His empire was divided into 3 kingdoms ruled by Macedonian generals.
When did Alexander lead his expedition to Persia and defeat it? During the Hellenistic era.
What was the main significance of Alexander's conquests? It helped widely spread Greek culture to Egypt, Mesopotamia, and India.
What was the big things that helped spread Greek culture? The many cities that Alexander and later Heelenistic rulers established throught the empire.
Why was Alexandria, Egypt important? It was the largest of the Greek culture cities. It had half a million people, a harbor for long-distance commerce, and Greek learning took off thanks to a huge library.
Where was a simplified form of the Greek language widely spoken? From the Mediterranean to India.
How were cities such as Alexandria different from the original city-states of Greece? In their cultural diversity and the absence of independence.
What were The Macedonians and Greeks in the Hellenistic kingdoms? The elite, wanting to keep themselves seperate.
Who did the Ptolemaic empire and the Seleucid empire resemble and why? Older empires of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Assyria, and Persia because they were imperial states, were determined to preserve order, raise taxes and maintain monarch authority.
What are the two Hellenistic kingdoms? The Ptolemaic empire in Egypt and the Seleucid empire in Persia.
How were a growing number of people able to become Greek citizens? By getting a Greek education, speaking the Greek language, dressing appropriately, and assuming a Greek name.
In what varna were Greeks put in India? The Kshatriya, or warrior, class.
What religion did many Greeks convert to during the Hellenistic era? Buddhism
Why did the Greek cultural influence fade? The Hellenistic kingdoms that had promoted it weakened and vanished by the first century of B.C.E.
In the Hellenistic world, what replaced the Greek rule? The Romans.
How are Rome and China alike? They flourished at about the same time, they occupied a similar area, they had about the same size population, and both were only dimly aware of each other.
What did Rome begin as? A small, impoverished city-state on the western side of Italy that was so weak that, according to legend, they kidnapped neighboring women to reproduce.
What did Rome become? The center of an enormous imperial state the encompassed the Mediterranean basin and included parts of continental Europe, Britain, North Africa, and the Middle East.
Who was Rome first ruled by, and who was it later ruled by? First ruled by a king. Aristocrats threw off the monarchy and established a republic in which the patricians ruled.
What are patricians and plebians? Patricians are the wealthy class in Rome, plebians are the poorer classes in Rome.
Who political rights did plebians have? A written code of laws offered some protection from abuse, a system of public assemblies provided an opportunity for them to shape public policy, and a new office of tribune, who represented plebians, allowed them to block unfavorable legislation.
What did Romans take great pride in? Why? Their political system. They believed they had greater freedom than many of their neighbors.
What were the values of the republic in Rome? What was this called? Rule of law, the rights of citizens, the absence of pretension, upright moral behavior, and keeping one's word. It was called "the way of the ancestors"
What did the Romans do with their political system and values? Launched their empire building enterprise.
Where did Rome first have control over? Central Italy and most of the Italian peninsula.
What did the victory in the Punic wars do for Rome? Who was it against? Against Carthage, a powerempire in North Africa. It extended Roman control over the western Mediterranean and made Rome a naval power.
Where did Rome eventually expand to? The eastern Mediterranean (Greece, Egypt, and Mesopotamia) and Southern and Westernd Europe (present-day Spain, France, and Britain)
What did Rome encompass? The entire Mediterranean basin and beyond.
How did the growth of the Roman empire represent opportunities? Poor soldiers hoped for land, loot, or salaries that could get their families out of poverty. Better off people gained estates, earned promotions, and sometimes achieved public acclaim and high political office.
What was some of the motivation for the creation of the Roman empire? The wealth of the long-established societies in the eastern Mediterranean and the resources and food supplies of the less developed western regions.
What feature of Rome essentially built the empire? How? The army because they were often brutal in war.
What did the Roman army to the inhabitants of cities they destroyed? Killed them or sold them into slavery.
How could Roman authorities be generous to former enemies? Some could be granted Roman citizenship, others were treated as allies and allowed to maintain their local rulers.
What small group of military leaders did Rome have? Marius, Sulla, Pompey, and Julius Caesar.
What did Julius Caesar do? Recruited Rome's troops directly from the ranks of the poor, and whose fierce rivalries brought civil war to Rome during the 1st century.
Who was blamed for the decline of republican values in Rome? The self-seeking ambition of the newly rich and powerful.
What happened after the civil war caused by Julius Caesar in Rome? Authority was now vested in an emperor. Rome was becoming an empire.
Who was the first emperor in Rome? Octavian, who was later granted the title of Augustus, which implied a divine status for the ruler.
What was Augustus careful to maintain? How did he do it? The forms of republic: the Senate, consuls, and public assemblies. He never referred to himself as king or emperor, and spoke of conquests reflecting power of the people, not the state.
Why was Augustus really an emperor? He was able to exercise sole authority and was backed up by his command of a professional army.
What was the pax Romana? The Roman peace and the era of imperial Rome's greatest extent and authority.
Instead of creating something new, what did the making of China do? Restore something old.
What dynasties made up early China, and what happened to it? The Xia, Shang, and Zhou. By 500 B.C.E., the state was in shambles. All unity vanished in an age of warring states, causing endless rivalries in 7 kingdoms.
Who reunified China? How? Qin Shihuangdi. He launched a military campaign and in 10 years defeated the other warring states.
What resources did Shihuangdi use to reunify China? An effective bureaucracy, aristocracy, had equipped army with iron weapons, and had rapidly rising agricultural output and a growing population. Also Legalism.
What does "Shihuangdi" mean? first emperor
Where did subsequent conquests extend China to? To the south into the northern part of Vietnam, to the northeast into Korea, and the northwest, where the Chinese pushed back the nomadic pastoral people.
What happened to scholars who opposed Shihuangdi? Aristocrats? They were executed and all their books were burned. Aristocrats were physically moved to the capital.
Why was the Great Wall of China built? To keep out northern "barbarians" and to create a final resting place for the emperor.
Positively, what did Shihuangdi do? Imposed a uniform system of weights, measures, and currency and standardized the length of axles for carts and the written form of Chinese language.
How long did the Qin dynasty last? What followed? Not long. The Han dynasty.
How was the Han dynasty the same and different from the Qin? It kept the centralized features, but wasn't as harsh, adopting Confucianism in place of Legalism.
What dynasty established the political patterns that lasted into the 20th century? The Han dynasty.
What features did China and Rome share? They defined themselves in universal terms, they invested heavily in public works, and they invoked supernatural sanctions to support their rule.
How did Romans regard their deceased emperors? As gods, and religious cults were established to improve the authority of the living.
In China, what was heaven? An impersonal moral force that regulated the universe.
What is the Mandate of Heaven? Says that as long as emperors rule morally and with benevolence, they had the right to govern.
What was the chief duty of the emperor in China? To perform various rituals thought to maintain the appropriate relationship between heaven and earth.
What foreign religous tradition did China and Rome absorb? Rome-Christianity China-Buddhism
Who were the first people that Christianity spread to? How quickly did it spread? The poor and lower classes. Slowly
When and why did Buddhism begin to spread in China? After the collapse of the Han dynasty, because people felt bewildered by the loss of a predictable and stable society.
When did Buddhism really gain state support in China? When the Sui dynasty emperor Wendi reunified China, but only temporarily.
What was the dominant religious tradition throughout Europe? Christianity.
How was Rome's relationship with society? Since Rome began as a small city-state, Romans and Italians were always a distinct minority.
How was China's relationship with society? Non-Chinese people were assimilated into the culture, becoming Chinese linguistically, through intermarriage, and in physical appearance.
How did Rome offer a kind of assimilation of its subject peoples? Roman citizenship was granted for service to the empire or in recognition of their adoption of Roman culture.
What advantages did citizenship offer in Rome? The right to hold public office, serve in the military units known as legions, to wear a toga, and it also conveyed a legal status, but didn't erase other identities.
In the eastern half of Rome, what culture blended with it and was seen as superior to their own? Greek culture
What was the only thing in China that came from another culture? Buddhism
What was language like in Rome? They used Latin, an alphabetic language depicting sounds, which gave rise to other distinct languages.
What was language like in China? Chinese characters represented qorkds or ideas, more so than sounds, and wasn't easily transferable to other languages. Written Chinese though, could be understood by all literate people.
What did both the Chinese and Roman empires establish politically? What did the Chinese do far more than the Romans? Effective centralized control over vast regions and huge populations. The chinese developed an elaborate bureacracy.
What did the Han emperor Wudi do? What was it the beginning of? Established an imperial academy for training officials for an emerging bureaucracy with a Confucian bades curriculum. A civil service system, which integrated Chinese culture.
What was Roman administration like? They relied on regional aristocratic elites and the army to stick together. They also developed an elaborate body of laws for everyone dealing with justice, property, commerce, and family life.
What made a good government in China and Rome? China-good men Rome-good laws
What part of Rome collapsed? What did the other part become? The western half. The eastern became known as the Byzantine Empire.
How did large landowning familes contribute to the collapse of empires? They could avoid paying taxes, diminish central government authority, and it turned free peasants into impoverished farmers.
What tension in China weakened the state? Between eunuchs, castrated court officials loyal to the emperor, and Confucian-educated scholar-bureaucrats.
What tension in Rome weakend the state? 26 people claimed the title of emperor, and only one died of natural causes.
What ravaged both Rome and China that weakened the states? Epidemic disease, which lead to diminished production, less state revenue, and few men available for defense.
What growing threst aided in the collapse of China? From nomadic or semi-agricultural. As the Han weakend, they more easily breached frontier defenses and set up "barbarian states" in the north.
What group did Rome face invasion problems from? Germanic-speaking people, who came and established their own kingdoms.
What was the difference between the invasion in China and in Rome? In China, Chinese culture was adopted. In Rome, they developed their own ethnic identities.
What did the collapse of empire mean? A disappearance of centralized government, conflict, decline in urban life, contracting population, less area under cultivation, less international trade, and vast insecurity.
What is the most significant difference in the collapse of the Chinese empire and that in the Mediterranean basin? China reassembled after about 350 years of chaos and warfare under the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties. Rome tried unsuccessfully.
What did Western Europe become after the collapse of the Roman empire? A highly decentralized political system involving kings with little authority, knights and vassals, city-states in Italy, and small territories ruled by prince, bishops, or the pope.
What conditions gave Chinese state-builders more resources to rebuild the empire? Having the same culture, a stable bureaucracy, Confucianism, productive agriculture, and an advanced metallurgy.
How did the Roman Catholic Church prevent Rome from rebuilding itself? It was frequently at odds with state authorities, , and its "otherworldliness" did little so support the creation of large-scale empires.
What did not play a prominent role in India, although it did in all other civilizations? Empire
What was an exquisitely planned city in India? Harappa.
What did India have little evidence of, politically? Any central political authority.
What idea is being questioned about how an Indian civilization along the Ganges River on India's northern plain came about? Whether the Aryans invaded, migrated, were already there, or if it evolved gradually from Indus Valley culture.
What was India like politically? It emerged as a fragmented collection of towns and cities, some small republics governed by public assemblies, and regional states ruled bu kings.
What 2 features of Indian civilization informed much of South Asian history? Political fragmentation and vast cultural diversity.
What gave Indian society a recognizeable identity? Hinduism and the caste system
Who had northwestern India briefly been ruled by? The Persian empire, but then conquered by Alexander the Great.
What was India's first and largest experiment with a large-scale political system? Who was it influenced by? The Mauryan Empire. Perisn and Greek.
What did the Mauryan empire boast? A large military force.
Who is Ashoka? An emperor in Mauryan India who left a racord of his activities and thoughs on edicts carved on rocks and pillars throughout the kingdom. He also converted to Buddhism and had a moralistic approach to government.
How did Ashoka govern? Moralistically. He sought to govern in accordance to the religious values and moral teachings of Hinduism and Buddhism.
What happened after Ashoka's death? The empire broke apart.
What other short-lived empire came after the Mauryan? The Gupta.
What contributed to the collapse of Indian empires? Unparalleled cultural diverisity, the frequency of invasions from Central Asia, and a social structure embodied in the caste system linked to occupational groups, where everyone was intensely loyal.
What did a vibrant economy do for India? Fostered a lively internal commerce and made India the focal point of an extensive network of trade in the Indian Ocean basin.
What science achievements did India have? They plotted the movements of stars and planets and recognized that the earth was round.