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APWH Chapter 4

Who were the conquered people in Sparta that lived in slavelike conditions? helots
Who was Solon? A reforming leader who emerged to push Athenian politics in a democratic direction.Abolished debt slavery and all citizens were able to take part in the Assembly.
What is the name of the period in which greek culture was widely spread? Hellenistic Era
The Punic Wars were what? three major wars between Rom and Carthage in North Africa, led to Roman victory and control over western mediterranean
The poorer, less privelleged Romans who gradually won a role in Roman politics were called? Plebians
Who were the wealthy, privilleged Romans that dominated early Roman society? Patricians
The great nephew and adopted son of Julius Ceasar who emerged as the sole ruler of the Roman sate was who? Ceasar Augustus
What is Pax Romana? "Roman peace" the period of stability and prosperity
Who was the Sui dynasty emperor who reunified China? Wendi
Who was the Han emperor who began the Chinese civil service system? Wudi
What was the major peasant revolt in China that helped lead to the fall of the Han dynasty, called? Yellow Turban Rebellion
In China, the castrated court officials loyal to the emperor are called? Eunuchs
Who were xiongnus? Nomadic people's to the north of the Great Wall of China and were a frequent threat to the stability of the Chinese state
Indo- European pastoraltists who moved into India about the time of the collapse of the Indus River Valley civilization were known as? Aryans
What were two of the changes that came about in Second Wave civilizations? Population grew more rapidly than ever, China had the most technological innovation (wheelbarrows, better plow harness, gunpowder, iron, paper)
What were three of the continuities that came about in the Second Wave civilizations? Mostly ruled by monarchs, Men continued to dominate women, the practice of slavery continued
What is an empire? State that exercises coercive (using threats) power.
What does an empire so? Rules a diverse variety of people, usually while oppressing their culture
What is one way Persian and Greek civilizations differ in their political organization and values? Greece was not centralized like Persia. Instead, had hundreds of independent city-states
What were two aspects of the Persian civilization? Based on a cult of kingship (king is worshiped), governors (satraps) in each province
What were two aspects of the Greek civilization? focused on "citizenship", democracy was direct, not representative
Name three was Athenian democracy was different from modern democracy. direct democracy - everyone voted on everything, no representatives, women,slaves, foreigners (more than half the population) could not participate at all
What did the Greek victory against the Persians do for the Athenian democracy? Gave poorer men full citizenship thanks to the rowers who helped win the war.
What were one of the cause and effects of the Peloponnesian War? Sparta won a civil war that depleted both sides and opened them up to the eventual takeover of Macedonia led by Alexander.
Who spread Greek culture into Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, and India Alexander
What happened to Alexander's empire when he died? Split into 3 kingdoms, one for each of his generals
What were one of the reasons Rome grew from a single city, to the center of a huge empire? The winning of the Punic Wars over Carthage, gave Rome all of western Mediterranean (whole coast of Africa)
What is one reason, the making of the Chinese empire, differed from the Roman empire, and why? The Roman empire was new, the Chinese empire was reviving old imperial traditions. This made the empire building quicker.
What were one of the differences between Roman and Chinese empires? China- Elaborate bureaucracy Rome- Government not as organized, relied heavily on local leaders and the army
What were two of the similarities between Roman and Chinese empires? Absorbed foreign religions (Christianity and Buddhism), Considered themselves the center of the universe
How was the collapse of the Roman empire different from the Han empire in China? Rome- Long decline due to the empire being to large to rule Han- Long decline due to the corruption and peasant unrest
What eventually happened to Western Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire? Decentralized system with kings, nobles, vessels, some city states in Italy under the Catholic Church, bishops or the Pope.
Why were Europeans unable to reconstruct something of the unity of their classical empire while China did? The Roman empire didn't have the strong bureaucratic traditions like China did in their many dynasties that came and went
What were one of the reasons that centralized empires were so much less prominent in India than in China? It was often invaded by outsiders due to its centralized and unprotected location
Give three examples of Ashoka's reign over the Mauryan empire. Converted to Buddhism, after bloody battle, preached non-violence and tolerance of other religions, stopped hunting and animal sacrifices
A major empire that expanded from the Iranian plateau to incorporate the Middle East from Egypt to India was the? Persian empire
Who was Qin Shihuangdi? Literally "first emperor from the Qin", reunited China and established a strong and repressive state.
What was the mane of the dynasty that ruled China for a period of time, and created a durable state based on Shihuangdi's state building achievment? Han dynasty
What was the Mauryan empire? A major empire that encompassed most of India. The first major Indian Empire.
What were the classical Eurasian Empires? Persia, Greece, Rome, Qin/Han, Mauryan/Gupta
What were the Chinese empires? Qin and Han dynasty
What were the Indian empires? Mauryan and Gupta
What was two things that helped keep the Persian empire together? violent punishments from the king, effective administrative system
Who was Cyrus (the great)? Founder of the Persian empire, a ruler noted for his conquests, religious tolerance, and political moderation
Who was Herodotus? Greek historian known as "the father of history" His histories enunciated the Greek view of a fundamental divide between East and West, culminating in the Greco-Persia Wars
The territory of Greek settlements on the coast of Anatolia (Turkey); the main bone of the contention between the Greeks and the Persian empire was known as? Ionia
What was hoplite? A heavily armed Greek infantryman.
What was the capital palace-city of the Persian empire, destroyed by Alexander the Great? Persepolis
What were some aspects of the Mauryan (first empire)? Led by Ashoka (broke up after he died), Ruled all but southern tip of India, Huge pop, military, and bureaucracy, gov controlled industries
Why do empires collapse? too big to rule, taxes, invaders, no tech breakthroughs
Created by: 1213brookisaacs