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Chapter 7~

Chapter 7 Flashcards

Where is Maya located? Southern Mexico.
Besides the civilizations of Greece, Rome, Persia, and China, what other societies arose in the time of the classical era? The Mesoamerican Maya, the Peruvian Moche, and civilizations in Africa such as Meroe, Axum, and the Niger River valley.
Where did the human migration movement begin and where did they go? All people are from Africa, and from there they dispersed into Eurasia, the Americas and Oceania.
What remained the sole basis for sustaining life? Hunting and gathering.
What revolution took place on each super continent? The Agricultural Revolution.
What are some features of a complex society? Cities, states, monumental architecture, and great social inequalities.
At the beginning of the Common Era, the earth had a population of 250 million. Was this considered a lot? No.
In the classical era, which continent was home to the largest population? Eurasia.
In the classical era, which continent was home to the least amount of people? The Americas.
How did the absence of domesticated animals affect the Americas? No pastoral societies nor could plows and carts with heavy loads be pulled for long distances.
How did Africa come in contact with sheep, goats, chickens, horses, and camels? Eurasia.
Why was metallurgy in the Americas much less developed than the metallurgy in the Eastern Hemisphere? In the eastern hemisphere they relied more heavily on iron tools and weapons.
Of which Mesoamerican region had the most advanced writing system? The Maya.
Compare the writing systems of Africa and Eurasia to that of the Mayans. In Africa, writing was confined to the northern and north eastern part of the continent. In Eurasia, writing systems were more complex and much more widespread.
Why are regions in parts of Africa so different from one another? The continents environmental variations.
What are some different climates in Africa? The Mediterranean climate, large deserts, savanna grasslands, and tropical rainforests, and highlands and mountains.
What ensured the variations between the civilizations in Africa? The continents size and the various climates.
What is Africa's one distinctive environmental feature? It's bisected by the equator, making it the most tropical of the three super-continents.
How did Africa's persistent warm weather affect it's agriculture? The temperatures caused the rapid decompositions of the vegetable matter, humus, causing poorer and less fertile soils.
In what other ways did these climatic conditions cause challenges and distress for Africa? It spawned numerous disease-carrying insects and parasites.
What is another geographic feature that shaped Africa? It's closeness the Eurasia, which allowed parts of Africa to interact with Eurasian civilizations.
What empire used north African slave labor estates for the production of wheat and olives? The Roman Empire.
Christianity spread widely. In what part of Africa did it take a permanent foothold? The area now know as Ethiopia.
What was another point of contact for the African peoples? Arabia.
How was a nomadic pastoral way of life generated in parts of Africa? The camel, which was introduced by the Arabians.
In Africa, camels also made what possible? The trans-Saharan commerce, which linked interior West Africa to the Mediterranean civilizations.
What did the East African coast transform into? A trading port for Egyptians, Romans, and Arab merchants. This became a big part in the Indian Ocean trading network.
What are three African regions that displayed classical Africa's social and cultural aspects? Northeastern Africa, the Niger river basin in West Africa, and the Bantu-speakers spread out south of the equator.
What civilization came about in the Nile Valley south of Egypt? Nubia
How did the Nubians and Egyptians interact with each other? They both fought and traded with each other, alternating between who conquered who and who was conquered.
What happened to Nubia when Egypt fell to foreign invasions? It came to center on the southern city of Meroe.
How was the Kingdom of Meroe governed? By an all-powerful and sacred monarch, who occasionally could be ruled by women. (go us!)
What happened to rulers of Meroe when they died? They were buried along with many sacrificial victims.
Meroe held a variety of economic positions such as? Merchants, weavers, potters, masons, servants, labors, and slaves.
Why were Meroe farmers less dependent of irrigation? Rainfall-based agriculture.
What great riches gave Meroe a name in the civilizations of northeastern Africa and the Mediterranean? Iron weapons, cotton clothes, gold, ivory, tortoiseshells, and ostrich feathers.
What caused the decline of Meroe? Deforestation caused by the need for woods to make charcoal for smelting iron.
In the following centuries what happened to Nubia? Three different Nubian states emerged and Coptic Christianity became the dominant religion.
What is Coptic Christianity? The Egyptian form of Christianity.
What eroded the Christian civilization of Nubia? Political division, Arab immigrations, and the penetration of Islam.
Where is Axum located? What is now Eritrea and northern Ethiopia.
How was Axum economically supported? By a highly productive agriculture that used a plow-based system.
Axum produced what kinds of agriculture? Wheat, barley, millet and teff (highly nutritious grain from that region).
At this time what was East Africa's largest coastal port? Adulis, which held a wide variety of merchants who sought out animal hides, rhinoceros horns, ivory, obsidian, tortoiseshells, and slaves.
What provided the Axumite state a major source of revenue? Taxes on trade.
The capitol city, Axum, was known for what? It's monumental buildings and the arts.
The most famous of these Axum monuments were the? Obelisks, which marked royal graves.
How was Axum viewed by Rome? Rome, as far as they knew, Axum was the third largest civilizations, following their own and Persia.
How was Christianity introduced to Axum? Through its connections to Red Sea trade and the Roman/Egyptian World.
In Axum's campaign of imperial expansions, their forces went into what lands? Meroe and Yemen.
What were some characteristics of the decline in the Axumite state? Soil exhaustion, erosion, and deforestation.
How did the rise of Islam effect the Axumite state? It altered trade routes and diminished the available revenue.
What features of Meroe and Axum paralleled the features of the classical civilizations of Eurasia? Long-distance trading connections, urban centers, centralized states, complex societies, monumental architecture, written languages, and imperial ambitions.
How did the urbanization of the Niger River in West Africa come to be? A dry period that brought together people into the fertile floodplain of the middle Niger.
What accompanied those peoples who traveled to the the floodplain of the middle Niger? Their domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats; their agricultural skills; and their iron working technology.
What is the most studied urban cluster that grew up along the middle Niger? Jenne-jeno.
What is the most distinctive feature of the Niger valley civilization? There was no larger imperial system or a centralized political structure.
What has one historian described the Niger Valley civilization as? "Cities without citadels", meaning there is no coercive authority of state.
What have archeologists found in the Niger River civilizations? Remains showing few signs of despotic power, widespread warfare, or deep social inequalities.
What can these Niger River urban civilizations be compared to? Those of the Indus Valley civilizations.
Jenne-jeno had a classified system of specialized occupations? Give some examples of these jobs. Iron smithing, cotton weavers, potters, leather workers, and griots.
This occupational hierarchy soon became an..? Occupational caste, whose members passed on their skills to their children and could marry only within their group.
What resources did the Middle Niger floodplain lack? Stone, iron, ore, salt, and fuel.
This Middle Niger scarcity was the basis for what? A long-distance commerce, operated by the use of boats and donkeys.
To receive the items of scarcity, Jenne-jeno would trade what? Grain, fish, smoked meats, and iron implements.
What was partially responsible for the development of some of the large scale states in West Africa? The camel-borne trans-Saharan commerce.
As West Africa become more connected to North Africa and the Mediterranean, what happened? Islam became more prominent, causing a major cultural transformation.
South of the equator, what was happening in Africa? A movement of Bantu-speaking people encompassing the southern part of the continent.
Bantu expansion was not an invasion or conquest but a..? slow movement of peoples who brought south Africa different cultures and linguistics.
What was the most significant encounter between Bantu-speakers and preexisting societies? The Bantu-speakers transformed the hunter-gathers into agriculture-based peoples.
How were gather-hunter peoples replaced by the Bantu-speaking farmers? Farmers generated a more productive economy, they brought with them diseases, of which foraging peoples had little immunity to, and iron, which served as a very useful tool.
What hunter-gather civilizations still exist today? The Sans.
How did the foraging Batwa people interact with Bantu-speakers? The Batwa (Pygmy), specialized in producing honey, wild game, elephant products, animal skins, and medicinal barks and plants, which they used to trade with the Bantu farmers. They also adopted the language.
What food crops did West Africa acquire from Southeast Asia? Coconuts, sugarcane, and bananas. From Southeast Asia, also came a set of cultural and social practices.
What was a Diviner? A person skilled in reaching the world of the supernatural using dreams, visions, charms and trances to identify the source of the misfortune and prescribe a remedy.
What is the religious practice of "continuous revelation"? The Bantu religious belief that the possibility existed of receiving new messages from the world beyond.
What two regions housed the majority of the population of the Americas? The Aztec and Inca empires.
What are some of the particular aspects of the Mesoamerica civilization that spread widely across the area? The temple pyramids, the calendar system and the practice of human sacrifices.
The complex Mayan mathematical system was thought to have been developed by who? Probably priests.
The Mayan writing system consisted of what 2 major elements? Pictographs and phonetic elements.
What were some of the elements of the Mayan agricultural system? Terracing, drained swamps, flattened ridgetops and elaborate water management systems.
What were some of the identifiable reasons for the rapid demise of the Mayan empire? Drought, famine, epidemics and warfare.
What was the difference in the demise of the Mayans versus that of the Roman or Chinese empires? Neither foreign invasion nor internal rebellion paid a role in the demise of the Mayans like it did with the Romans and Chinese.
What city was the largest urban complex in the Americas between 150 BCE and 550 BCE? Teotihuacan
What part of the city of Teotihuacan was regarded as the site of creation itself and the birthplace of the sun and moon? The Pyramid of the Sun, one of 2 giant pyramids in the city.
How were the residents of the city housed? In grid like patterns of apartments across the city which housed farmers, skilled workers and artisans..
How were buildings throughout the city often decorated? They were adorned with murals, paintings and carvings.
Unlike the art of the Mayans, the art of Teotihuacan did not reveal what? Images of rulers or monarchs.
The size, prestige and influence of the city of Teotihuacan led it to be known as what? The "city of the gods'.
What were some of the landscape elements which helped to support the creation of the civilizations of the Andes? The development of the Andes civilization benefited from the rivers flowing down from the mountains which provided water in a desert landscape along with the abundant marine-life present in the ocean.
What was the most well known civilization of the Andes? The Incas.
What civilization preceded the Andes in this part of the world dating back to around 3000 BCE? The Norte Chico civilization.
Name the village where a religious movement began around 900 BCE and spread throughout coastal and highland Peru. Chavin de Huantar.
How was the Chavin influence demonstrated throughout the region? Chavin-style architecture, sculptures, pottery and imagery were widely imitated and found along trade routes linking highland and coastal Peru.
What civilization stood out following the fade of the Chavin religious movement? The Moche civilization.
The Moche civilization was governed by what social group? Warrior priests.
What ritual reflected the wealth of the priests as well as the talent of Moche artists? The burial of the warrior-priests.
What has provided scholars the most insight into the lives of the Moche people? The work of Moche craftspeople has provided the best examples of their superb skill and technical abilities.
What factors contributed to the demise of the Moche civilization? Scholars believe environmental conditions such as drought, earthquakes and flooding from the El Nino weather pattern caused disruption which undermined the civilization.
What ancient Peruvian civilization is known for its mysterious lines in the desert? The Nazca civilization were famous for their gigantic and mysterious lines in the desert which formed monkeys, birds and other abstract designs.
Along with the cities and areas of dense population, what other group still existed in the Americas in the pre-Columbian age? The hunters-gatherers continued to survive in substantial regions of the Americas.
Explain what a "semi-sedentary" people might be? Semi-sedentary were agricultural societies that were less intensive and less populated, without large urban centers and empires.
Name two semi sedentary groups who existed in the North Americas during the classical era? The Anasazi and the mound building cultures of the eastern woodlands.
How did North America acquire maize? Mesoamerica
What were pit houses used for? To live in or kivas, large pit structures used for ceremonial purposes?
What is one major pueblo civilization? Chaco, in the northwestern part of New Mexico.
Who were the Chaco elites? Astronomers
Where were the mound builders located? East of the Mississippi, they are the Hopewell culture.
Since archeologists have found artifacts from very far away in the Hopewell community, what does this suggest? They were part of a large trading network.
When these mound building people took the shape of a corn-growing community, what happened? An agriculture revolution, creating a dominant center, Cahokia.
How are the Chaco and Cahokia alike? Both had corn and both flourished around same time.
The enormous structures built in Cahokia and the burial of certain peoples suggests? That they were the elites who had control over many people to build these structures.
One Spanish observer states what about the Cahokia people? They fully obey the chief and do whatever he needs to do. He has great power.
How did the mound-building, corn-growing people change the United States? They gave rise to a regional cultural complex that included things like ceremonies, economics, and cultural exchanges.
Created by: 1213RachelBlair