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Population (Chapter 2)
|The age structure of a population that determines similarities and differences among countries. An important factor of this structure is the dependency ratio.
|This is the population level that can be supported, given the quantity of food, habitat, water and other life infrastructure present. This is important because it tells how many people an area will be able to support.
|Population of various age categories in an age-sex population pyramids.
|The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration.
|The tendency for a growing population to keep growing after a fertility decline because of the young age distribution.once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
|Cape Verde is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark is in Stage 4 (Low Growth). This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition.
|Demographic Transition model
|Has 5 steps. Stage 1 is low growth, Stage 2 is High Growth, Stage 3 is Moderate Growth, and Stage 4 is Low Growth and Stage 5 although not officially a stage is a possible stage that includes zero or negative population group.
|The number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years. This is important because this tells how many people each worker supports.
|Diffusion of fertility control
|Shows how many children a mother is having, showing us which countries are levelling off, and which ones are growing rapidly.
|Sorted into two groups; Contagious and Hierarchical. Hierarchical is along high density areas that spread from urban to rural areas. Contagious is spread through the density of people.
|The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
|The proportion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
|Epidemiological Transition model
|This is a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. This explains how a countries population changes so dramatically.
|This refers to physical or virtual space that is associated with a particular gender because of the activities that occur in the space. For example, a military base.
|Infant mortality rate
|The annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births. Its is expressed as the annual number of deaths among infants among infants per 1000 births rather than a percentage.
|This is when the projection population show exponential growth. This is important because if the population grows exponential resource use will go up exponentially and so will our use as well as a greater demand for food a
|This is an adaptation that has become less helpful than harmful. This relates to human geography because it has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on.
|Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population. This is important because he brought up the point that we may be outrunning our supplies because of our exponentially growing
|Is a reflection of a country’s health care system, IMR and life expectancy measures the average number of years a baby can expect to live.
|(Crude Birth Rate) This is the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; it is expressed as number of birth in year to every 1000 people alive in the society.
|Theory that builds upon Malthus’ thoughts on overpopulation. Takes into count two factors that Malthus did not: population growth in LDC’s, and outstripping of resources other than food
|Relationship between the number of people on Earth, and the availability of resources
|The frequency with which something occurs in space
|The arrangement of a feature in space. Geographers identify the three main properties as density, concentration, and pattern Used to describe how things and people are distributed across the earth.
|A sudden increase or burst in the population in either a certain geographical area or worldwide. (Occurred in the late 18th and early 19th centuries because several countries moved on to stage 2 of the Demographic Transition Model.
|Predicts the future population of an area or the world. (Helps predict future problems with population such as overpopulation or under population of a certain race or ethnicity.)
|Displayed cohorts by age and gender on a bar graph. Shape is determined primarily by crude birth rate. Shows age distribution and sex ratio.
|Rate of natural increase
|The percentage by which a population grows in a year (CBR-CDR) excludes migration. Affects the population and a country’s or area’s ability to support that population.
|Traces the cyclical movement upwards and downwards in a graph. So named for its shape. Relates to growth and decline in the natural increase.
|The number of males per hundred females in the population Depends on birth and death rates, immigration. Men have higher death rates but also higher birth rates. Immigration usually means more males because they can make the journey.
|Standard of living
|Refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way they are distributed within a population Higher standards of living are found in MDC’s rather than LDC’s. Can help trace development.
|Providing the best outcomes for human and natural environments both in the present and for the future Relates to development that meets today’s needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
|Sharp drop or decrease in a region’s population.
|Zero population growth(ZPG)
|A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate is non-existent.