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# Unit 2

### Population (Chapter 2)

TermDefinition
Age Distribution The age structure of a population that determines similarities and differences among countries. An important factor of this structure is the dependency ratio.
Carrying capacity This is the population level that can be supported, given the quantity of food, habitat, water and other life infrastructure present. This is important because it tells how many people an area will be able to support.
Cohort Population of various age categories in an age-sex population pyramids.
Demographic equation The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration.
Demographic momentum The tendency for a growing population to keep growing after a fertility decline because of the young age distribution.once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
Demographic regions Cape Verde is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark is in Stage 4 (Low Growth). This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition.
Demographic Transition model Has 5 steps. Stage 1 is low growth, Stage 2 is High Growth, Stage 3 is Moderate Growth, and Stage 4 is Low Growth and Stage 5 although not officially a stage is a possible stage that includes zero or negative population group.
Dependency ratio The number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years. This is important because this tells how many people each worker supports.
Diffusion of fertility control Shows how many children a mother is having, showing us which countries are levelling off, and which ones are growing rapidly.
Disease diffusion Sorted into two groups; Contagious and Hierarchical. Hierarchical is along high density areas that spread from urban to rural areas. Contagious is spread through the density of people.
Doubling time The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Ecumene The proportion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Epidemiological Transition model This is a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. This explains how a countries population changes so dramatically.
Gendered space This refers to physical or virtual space that is associated with a particular gender because of the activities that occur in the space. For example, a military base.
Infant mortality rate The annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births. Its is expressed as the annual number of deaths among infants among infants per 1000 births rather than a percentage.
J-curve This is when the projection population show exponential growth. This is important because if the population grows exponential resource use will go up exponentially and so will our use as well as a greater demand for food a
Maladaptation This is an adaptation that has become less helpful than harmful. This relates to human geography because it has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on.
Malthus, Thomas Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population. This is important because he brought up the point that we may be outrunning our supplies because of our exponentially growing
Mortality Is a reflection of a country’s health care system, IMR and life expectancy measures the average number of years a baby can expect to live.
Natality (Crude Birth Rate) This is the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; it is expressed as number of birth in year to every 1000 people alive in the society.
Neo-Malthusian Theory that builds upon Malthus’ thoughts on overpopulation. Takes into count two factors that Malthus did not: population growth in LDC’s, and outstripping of resources other than food
Overpopulation Relationship between the number of people on Earth, and the availability of resources
Population densities The frequency with which something occurs in space
Population distributions The arrangement of a feature in space. Geographers identify the three main properties as density, concentration, and pattern Used to describe how things and people are distributed across the earth.
Population explosion A sudden increase or burst in the population in either a certain geographical area or worldwide. (Occurred in the late 18th and early 19th centuries because several countries moved on to stage 2 of the Demographic Transition Model.
Population projection Predicts the future population of an area or the world. (Helps predict future problems with population such as overpopulation or under population of a certain race or ethnicity.)
Population pyramid Displayed cohorts by age and gender on a bar graph. Shape is determined primarily by crude birth rate. Shows age distribution and sex ratio.
Rate of natural increase The percentage by which a population grows in a year (CBR-CDR) excludes migration. Affects the population and a country’s or area’s ability to support that population.
S-curve Traces the cyclical movement upwards and downwards in a graph. So named for its shape. Relates to growth and decline in the natural increase.
Sex ratio The number of males per hundred females in the population Depends on birth and death rates, immigration. Men have higher death rates but also higher birth rates. Immigration usually means more males because they can make the journey.
Standard of living Refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way they are distributed within a population Higher standards of living are found in MDC’s rather than LDC’s. Can help trace development.
Sustainability Providing the best outcomes for human and natural environments both in the present and for the future Relates to development that meets today’s needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Underpopulation Sharp drop or decrease in a region’s population.
Zero population growth(ZPG) A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate is non-existent.
Created by: APHGSLS

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