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ANT Section 2

Antro Section 2 study guide

What is morphology? Form of anatomical structure (size, shape) used to determine species.
Difference between Primitive vs. derived? Primitive traits are those present in ancestral form while derived are those that evolved for a particular function.
What Makes primates unique? Primates are arboreal(tree adaption),dietary plasticity (eats various things), invest lots of time in few offspring
Arboreal adaptation: the four specific traits and why primates have them? Versatile skeletal limb structure(mobile limbs easy to grab branches), Enhanced sense of touch(Fingerprints at the tips (dermatoglyphics enhance grip),Enhanced sense of sight, Reduced reliance on smell and hearing
Dietary plasticity: teeth and dental formula? New world monkeys (platyrrhines) are 3,1,3,3 Old world monkeys (catrrhines) are 3,1,2,3 also has self honing canines(sharpens own teeth)
Parental investment: What it means and its effects invest lots of time raising one child, has benefits of flexible learned behaviors, efficient fetal nourishment, has delayed maturation
Tertiary 65 mil to 2 mil years ago
Paleocene Proto-primates (65-55mya) Plesiadapiforms-lacked solid ring of bone around their eye
Eocene Prosimian-like primates (55-34mya) Adapids-modern lemurs Omoyids-modern tarsiers
Oligocene First Anthropoids (34-23mya) Global cooling- Oligopithicids at 35mya Propliopithecids- ancestor of catarrhines Parapithecids- ancestor of platyrrhines
Miocene Hominids widespread (23-5mya)
Pliocene Hominids (5-2mya)
Prconsul Miocene, African Apes, Ape skulls monkey bodies
Sivapithicus Miocene, Northern India Ancestral to Khoratpithicus, ancestor to orangutans
Khoratopithicus Miocene asia
Gigantopithecus Miocene, Largest primate ever, Asia
Dryopithicus Miocene, Europe
Oreophithicus Miocene, Europe
Euprimates The first true primates, ancestral to modern prosimians
Adapids Related to the modern lemurs
Omomyids Related to modern tarsiers
Fayum Fossil beds Fayum Egypt, where most primate fossils are found from Oligocene period
Oligopithicids earliest Anthropoids
Parapithcids New World Monkeys, Ancestor of platyrrhines
Propliopithecids Old world monkeys, Ancestors of catarrhines
Aegyptopithicus Earliest catarrhines, found in Fayum, Last common ancestor of Old world monkeys, apes, and humans
Prosimians The lesser primate,Long muzzle, rhinarium (moist hairless nose), Primitive dental foruma (2 1 3 3), Dental comb,
Lorisiforms Galagos, Lorises, and pattos, from asia africa and india, Nocturnal, slow moving,
Lemuriforms lemurs
Tarsiriforms Tarsiers
Anthropodia All monkeys humans and apes
Platyrrines new world monkeys
Atelids howlers
Cebids squirrel monkeys
Catyrrhines Old world monkeys, apes, and humans
Cercopithicoids old world monkeys, including baboons and macaques
Created by: cregeorgia