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Behavioral Neurosci

Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology (Ch 4)

Amine Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter based on modifications of a single amino acid nucleus. (acetylcholine,serotonin, dopamine)
Amino Acid Neurotransmitter A neurotransmitter that is itself an amino acid (GABA, glycine, glutamate)
Peptide Neurotransmitter A neurotransmitter consisting of a short chain of amino acids
Gas Neurotransmitter A soluble gas that is produced and released by a neuron to alter the functioning of another neuron
Ionotropic Receptor (fast) A receptor protein that include an ion channel that is opened when the receptor is bound by an agonist
Metabolic Receptor (slow) A receptor protein that does not contain an ion channel but may when activated use a G protein system to open a nearby ion channel
Ligand A substance that binds to a receptor
Agonist A molecule that binds to a receptor molecule and initiates a response
Antagonist A molecule that interferes with or prevents the action of a transmitter
Inverse Antagonist A substance that binds to a receptor and causes it to do the opposite of what the naturally occurring transmitter does
Endogenous Ligands Produced inside the body
Exogenous Ligands Arising from outside the body
Co-Localization/Co-Release The appearance of more than one neurotransmitter in a given presynaptic terminal
Cholinergic Referring to cells that use ACh as their synaptic transmitter
Nicotinic Referring to cholinergic receptors that respond to nicotine AND ACh
Muscarinic Referring to cholinergic receptors that respond to mucsarine AND ACh
5 monoamines Catecholamines, indoleamines, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin
Excitotoxicity The property by which neurons die when overstimulated
Retrograde Transmitter A neurotransmitter that diffuses from the postsynaptic neuron to the presynaptic neuron
Affinity The degree of chemical attraction between a ligand and a receptor
Efficacy/intrinsic activity The extent to which a drug activates a response when it binds to a receptor
Partial Agonist/Partial Antagonist A drug that when bound to a receptor has less effect than the endogenous ligand
Modulatory Site A portion of a receptor that when bound by a compound alters the receptors response to it's transmitter. Binds to a site different than the transmitter site
Metabolic tolerance THe form of drug tolerance that arises when repeated exposure to the drug causes the metabolic machinery (liver, etc) of the body to become more efficient at clearing the drug
Functional tolerance decreased responding to a drug after repeated exposures (brain tissue doesn't respond anymore)
Cross tolerance A condition in which the development of tolerance for one drug causes an individual to develop tolerance to another drug
Sensitization A process in which the body shows an enhanced response to a given drug after repeated doses
Created by: 586065465
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