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Glycosis - process that cleaves and oxidizes glucose -ultimate goal to produce ATP, pyruvate and NHDA -happen in cytosol of all cell -required for production of energy from glucose(ananerobic or aerobic cell)
What are the starting material for glycosis Glucose, ADP, NAD+
how does glucose enter the cell? it is mediated by a facilitated transporter (GLUT)
Which cell has high affinity transporter with large amount of transporters on the cell surface? RBC and Brain
Which cell or tissue has low affinity transporter and large amount on cell surface? LIVER
Which cell or tissue has insulin sensitive transporters and little amount on cell surface? Muscle and adipose tissue
which enzyme catalyze the process of converting glucose to glucose-6-phosphate Hexokinase different isoform (Liver ==> Glucokinase , hexokinase IV) brain: hexokinase I
how does a cell trap glucose? Glucose --> glucose - 6- phosphate the phosphorylation of glucose result in product that is not able to cross the membrane
What is the name of hexokinase used by Liver Glucokinase we don't call it Hexokinase
Which tissue-specific hexokinase is upregulated by insulin? Liver and muscle brain hexokinase is not regulated by insulinas brain is highly depend on glucose
why liver hexokinase cant be inhibited by glucagon, but muscle hexokinase is not affected? Muscle has no receptor for glucagon
3 pathway that glucose-6-phosphate can proceed to 1) glycolysis 2) glycogenesis 3) pentose phosphate pathyway
which enzyme catalyze following process fructose 6-phosphate ==> fructose 1,6-biphosphate Phosphofructokinase -1 (PFK --1)
activation and inhibition factor of PFK-1 Activation factor: AMP Inhibition factor: ATP
Which two products does fructose 1,6-biphosphate split into? Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
What enzyme catalyze the formation of pyruvate and from which molecules? Phosphoenolpyruvate => pyruvate enzyme: pyruvate kinase
Pyruvate kinase has tissue specific isoform. What upregulate and down regulate its function in liver and muscle upregulated by Insulin (liver and muscle) downregulated by Glucagon (Liver only)
what are the two product formed from Pyruvate 1) Acetyl-coA (catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase) 2) Lacate (catalyzed by Lactate dehydrogenase)
can NADH cross from cytoplasm to mitochondrion? NO
What are the two ways to regenerate NAD+ 1) donation of NADH e- to the electron transport chain with help of shuttle system (shift an H atom across the mitochondrial membrane) 2) Lactate dehydrogenase reaction : important to glycolysis in anaerobic tissue
where does the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coA happen in cell? is it a reversible or irreversible process? It occurs in mitochondria and is irreversible process
What enzyme catalyze process of conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coA? pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (multisubunit enzyme complex)
What activate the activity of PDC? Elevation of ADP and substrate(Pyruvate) and Calcium (exercising muscle)with sufficient O2 supply
What inhibit the activity of PDC? elevation of ATP, CoA-acetyl, NADH and absence of O2
what is the key rate limiting enzyme in TCA cycle? Isocitrate dehydrogenase activated by increasing ADP and Calcium inihibited by increasing NADH
TCA Cycle -required for all aerobic production of ATP form glucose -required to generate ATP form ketons, fatty acid, alcohol and amino acid -generate other intermediates for other pathway -required vitamin derived cofactor
What vitamin derived cofactor is required by TCA cycle and PDC activity? -) pantothenate - biotin -niacin -thiamine -ribioglavin
List the factors which will reduce aerobic metabolism -nutritional deficiencies -Ischemia/hypoxia
How can delpeted oxaloacetate be replenished? It can replenish from Pyruvate with the help of pyruvate carboxylase.
What molecules can be broken down to acetyl-coA? fatty acid, ketones, amino acid, alcohol TCA cycle is a must to generate ATP from them
Pathway of TCA cycle Pyruvate ==> Oxaloacetate=> citrate => isocitrate => alpha-ketoglutarote => succinyl coA => succinate => fumarate => malate => oxaloacetate
What kind of synthesis is associate with citrate fatty acid syntheis
What kind of synthesis is associated with succinly CoA? heme synthesis
What is the rate limiting process in TCA cycle? citrate ==> alpha-ketoglutarate (citrate dehydrogenase)
product of TCA Cycle NADH, FADH2, CO2 (NADH and FADH2 are reoxidized through oxidative phosphorylation process)
where do we find acetyl CoA? Mitochondrion It is synthesized in mitochondrion but it cannot across the Mitochondrial membrane
What is the intermediate product if we want to convert acetyl CoA to fatty acid? Citrate, so it can move out into cytosol where fatty acid synthesis occurs
list the 3 irreversible enzymes of glycolysis 1) Hexokinase (glucokinase in liver) 2) Phosphofructokinase 3) Pyruvate kinase
Phosphofructokinase -2 (PFK-2) It catalyze the conversion of frctose-6-phosphate to fructose-2,6-biphsophate which will activate the activity of PFK-1 (ENSURE ALL EXCESS FUEL GET STORED)
which enzyme promote the synthesis of glycagon Glucagon synthase + branching enzyme
Which enzyme promote the degradation of glycagon Glucogen phosphorylase + debranching enzyme
Glucose 6- phosphatase -ONLY in Liver -convert glucose 6-phosphate to glucose and export out of cell muscle lack of this enzyme and cant transport glucose out of cell
Which transduction pathway does insulin associate with? Tyrosine kinase receptor
Which transduction pathway does Glucagon and epinephrine associate with? GPCR (G-protein coupled receptor)
pathway of glycagon synthesis from glucose 1-phosphate glucose-1-phosphate ==> UDP-glucose ==> Glycogen enzyme: glycogen synthase, branching enzyme)
Pathway of glycagon degradation in all cell glycagon ==> glucose-1-phosphate enzyme: glycogen phosphorylase, debranching enzyme
What activate glucogen synthase activity? insulin
What inihibit glucogen synthase activity? Glucagon (exception muscle) epinephrine
What activate glucogen phosphorylase activity? liver: Glucagon and epinephrine muscle: epinephrine, AMP, Ca2+
What inhibit glucogen phosphorylase activity? Insulin
what factor determine glycogen degradation in muslce cell 1) the need for ATP 2) whether or not the muscle is exercising (level of calcium)
slow twitch fiber vs fast twitch fiber Slow twitch fiber has -higher capacity for aerobic metabolism -lots of mitochondrion and myoglobin -resistant to fatigue -more glycogen -slower contraction speed than fast twitch fiber
Myoglobin one subunit, bind one oxygem molecules and help transport of oxygen in muscle cell -it also serves as small O2 store
what type of muscle fiber does muscle involve in posture usually have? Slow twitch fiber
What type of muscle fiber does muscle in leg has? Fast twitch fiber
Cardiac muscle higher aerobic metabolism and DOES NOT store much glycogen
What factor determine the degree of glycogenolysis in skeletal muscle? The length of fast
the effect of ephinephrine and cortisol on skeletal muscle during prolonged fasting? it increases skeletal muscle break down and conversion of amino acid to glucose
Creatine -synthesized in kidney, complete in liver, take up by skeletal and cardiac muscle cell -store energy in creatine phosphate form -provide rapid energy supply to muscle
Myokinase -enzyme express in muscle cell -2ADP==> 1 ATP + 1 AMP
Which pathway is the primary way that skeletal muscle obtains its ATP at the onset of exercise Anaerobic glycolysis
Anaerobic glycolysis -generate ATP rapidly at the onset of exercise -increase production of lactate =a means of regnerating NAD+ = production of lactic acid contribute to muscle pain =use as fuel source for other tissue
Cori Cycle the cycling of lactate between anaerbic tissue and liver) when anaerobic glycolysis and gluconeogeneiss occur simultaneously
AST -present high amount in skeltal and cardiac muscle increase AST ==> Tissue damage
List isoform of Creatine kinase in brain, muscle and cardiac muscle Brain; 2 B subunit (CK-BB_ Muslce; 2 M subunit (CK-MM) Cardiac muscle: 1 M and 1 B subunit (CK-MB)
Rhabdomyolysis -breakdow product of damaged muscle tissue release into blood stream -increase in creatinine level
Myositis inflammatrion of cell
what happen to the level of creatinine in a person with loss of muscle Decrease level of creatinine
Created by: powerbaby
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