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Fund of body ch 12

The Endocrine System chapter 12

The endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream
Hormones are chemical catalysts
A chemical catalyst causes a reaction to occur
Hormones help maintain the body's internal environment within certain narrow ranges. This balanciing act is called homeostatis
The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain
The pituitary is the size of a pea
The pituitary gland is AKA hypophysis or master gland
It is called the master gland because its hormones control the functions of many other endocrine glands
Even though the pituitary is called the "master gland" it is controlled by the hypothalamus
The pituitary gland is divided into two sections called the anterior and posterior lobes
The anterior lobe produces 1.GH growth hormone 2.TSH(T7)-Thyroid Stimulating Hormone AKA thyrotropin 3.ATCH-AdrenoCorticoTropic hormone 4.MSH-Melanocyte Stimulation Hormone 5.FSH-Follicle Stimulating Hormone 6.LH-Luteinizing Hormone 7.Lactogenic hormone AKA prolactin
GH(growth hormone) stimulates cell metabolism causing cells to divide(replicate) and increase in size (changes you from a child to an adult)
Significant amounts of GH is secreted until age 20
Insufficient amounts of GH(growth hormone) can cause dwarfism
A synthetic GH(growth hormone) is called Humatrope(somatropin)
Excessive amounts of GH(Growth hormone) can cause giantism
-tropin means I come from the pituitary gland
TSH(T7) thyroid stimulating hormone(thyrotropin) stimulates the thyroid to produce its hormones
ACTH- AdrenoCorticoTropic hormone stimulates the adrenal gland to produce their hormones
MSH - melanocyte stimulation hormone stimulates the melanocytes to produce melanin(skin pigment)
A hereditary disorder characterized by an absence of melanin is called albinism
FSH - follicle stimulating hormone stimulates the a.Ovaries to start the maturation process of a follicle(oocyte/egg cell) into an ovum(egg) b.Testes to create spermatozoa(spermatogenesis)
LH - luteinizing hormone stimulates a.Ovulation b.The production of progesterone to maintain pregnancy c.Production of testosterone in males
Lactogenic (prolactin) hormone stimulates the production of milk(lactation)
The posterior lobe of the pituitary produces: 1.ADH -stands for AntiDiuretic Hormone AKA vasopressin 2.OT - OxyTocin stimulates the uterus to contract during labor//synthetic oxytocin is called Pitocin("Pit drip")
ADH -AntiDiuretic hormone influences the volume of urine produced
Insufficient production of ADH(AntiDiuretic Hormone) is called Diabetes Insipidus(DI) / synthetic ADH is called Pitressin(vasopressin)
Oxytocin is also known as the binding hormone (binding refers to male-female and mother-neonate bonding)
The thyroid gland is located on the right and left sides of the trachea(windpipe) just inferior to the larynx(voice box/vocal cords)
The thyroid produces the following hormones: 1.T4 AKA thyroxine 2.T3 AKA triiodothyronine 3.Calcitonin
T3 and T4 are both commonly referred to as thyroxine
T3 & T4 are responsible for the regulation of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism
Metabolism refers to the rate at which the body utilizes(burns) energy
Hyperthyroidism (produces too much T3&T4/thyroxine) is called Grave's disease
Hypothyroidism (produces too little T3&T4/thyroxine) is called myxedema
A synthetic thyroxine is called Synthroid(levothyroxine) (given to myxedema/ hypothyroidism patients)
Calcitonin is released when the blood calcium levels rise
Calcitonin causes the deposit of Calcium(Ca) and Phosphorus(P) in the bones
The parathyroid glands are located embedded in the posterior(behind) surface of the thyroid gland
The parathyroid glands are the size of raisins
The parathyroid glands secrete ParaThyroid Hormone(PTH) AKA parathormone
PTH (ParaThyroid Hormone) causes osteocytes(bone cells) to released stored Calcium(Ca) and Phosphorus(P) into the blood
Release of PTH(ParaThyroid Hormone) will occur when serum Ca (calcium) levels fall
The adrenal glands are located just superior to the kidneys
The adrenal glands are AKA suprarental glands
The inner portion of the adrenal glands is called the adrenal medulla(inner/middle)
The outer portion of the adrenal glands is called the adrenal cortex(outer)
The adrenal medulla produces: Adrenalin AKA epinephrine
Adrenalin(epinephrine) contributes to the "fight or flight" response
The fight or flight response includes: 1.the breakdown of glycogen(released from liver) to glucose 2.Tachycardia(fast heart) 3.Tachypnea(fast breathing) 4.Bronchodilation 5.Hypertension(high blood pressure) 6.Pallor (paleness)
The adrenal cortex(outer) produces 1.Aldosterone 2.Cortisol (hydrocortisone) AKA steroids(Corticosteroids)
Anabolic steroids, the type used by athletes, are synthetic versions of testosterone
Conditions associated with anabolic steroid use includes: 1. Sudden Death (MI-myocardial infarction/heart attack, CVA-cerebral vascular accident/stroke 2. Liver cancer 3. Aggressiveness ("roid rage")
Aldosterone regulates the balance of electrolytes ("lytes")
Electrolytes (salts) include: 1.Sodium(Na) 2.Potassium(K) 3.Chloride(Cl) 4.Calcium(Ca)-mineral salts 5.Phosphorus(P)-mineral salts
The actions of cortisol(hydrocortisone) include: 1.Maintain proper glucose concentration in the blood between meals. 2.Helps reduce the inflamatory response 3.Aids the body with stressful situations
Hypersecretion of cortisol is called Cushing's disease - produce to much testosterone
Hyposecretion of cortisol is called Addison's desease - produce to little testosterone
A synthetic cortisol is called cortisone
The pancreas is located posterior to the stomach(retrogastric)
The purpose of the pancreas includes the production of INSULIN & GLUCAGON
Insulin is secreted when the Blood Sugar(BS) rises after eating a meal
The insulin allows the glucose(BS blood sugar) to enter the cells
When the glucose enters the cells the blood sugar(BS) level will fall
When the blood sugar(BS) falls too low the pancreas will secrete glucagon
Glucagon will stimulate the liver to convert glycogen to glucose
the pancreas's cycle is glucagon turns glycogen(liver) into glucose
The stimulating of the liver to convert glycogen to glucose will cause the glucose(BS-blood sugar) to rise
A normal Blood Sugar(BS) is 1. 70-130 mg/dL before meals(a.c.) 2. Less then 180 mg 2 hours after meals(p.c.)
Hyposecretion of insulin and/or the difficult utilization of glycose(insulin resistance) by the cells is called diabetes mellitus(DM)
A synthetic insulin is called Humulin(insulin)
Medications designed to stimulate the pancrease to produce more insulin or aid the cells in glucose(BS) utilization are called oral hypoglycemics(antidiabetes)
Risk factors for Diabetes Mellitus(DM) include: Heredity**Obesity**Over consumption of refined sugars**Over consumption of food**Sedentary lifestyle**Gestational(pregnancy) Diabetes Mellitus(DM)**African American, Native American**Hispanic**Asian American**Chronic Hypertention(HTN-high blood pressure)
Diabetes mellitus(DM)that develops in children is called juvenile onset diabetes mellitus(DM) or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus(IDDM) or type I diabetes mellitus(DM)
Type 1 diabetes mellits(DM) is the most serious form of diabetes mellitus (DM) and requires: 1.Daily injections of insulin 2.Strict diet control 3.Regimented(regular) exercise
Diabetes mellitus(DM) that develops in adulthood is called maturity onset diabetes mellitus(DM) or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM) or type II diabetes mellitus(DM)
This type of diabetes mellitus(DM) is less severe and can often be controlled by proper diet alone or proper diet and oral hypoglycemics (antidiabetics) such as Diabenese or Glucophage
Oral hypoglycemics (antidiabetics) stimulate the pancreas to secrete more insulin and/or allows the cells to utilize glucose(BS) more efficiently
Signs & symptoms of diabetes mellitus(DM) include: **Polyuria(excessive urination)**Glycosuria(sugar in the urine)**Polydipsia(excessive thirst)**Ketonuria(Ketones (burn fat) in the urine**Weight loss**Fatigue**Poor wound healing
Complications of diabetes mellitus(DM) include Atherosclerosis leading to myocardial infarction(MI)*cerebral vascular accident(CVA)*occlusion of a leg artery resulting in gangrene*Diabetes retinopathy(DR) blindness*Neuropathy causing pain-tingling-loss of feeling/paralysis*kidney failure* Impotence/ED
ED stands for erectile dysfunction
Treatment(Tx) for diabetes mellitus(DM) includes: *Strict diet based on number of calories per day divided into proper portions of carbohydrates, fats & proteins*Correct dosages of insulin based on Self Blood Glucose Monitorin(SBGM)
Tx for diabetes mellitus(DM) con't Regular exercise because diet intake & insulin(Humulin) dosage are based on the metabolic needs of the individual
Diet, insulin, or exercise cannot be altered without creating an insulin excess or deficiency
Diabetic coma (elevated BS/blood sugar) can result when a diabetic 1.Fails to take enough insulin 2.Increases caloric intake(eating more then you should) 3.Decreases exercise
Signs & symptoms of diabetic coma(blood sugar to high) include: 1.Deep labored breathing 2.Dry skin & mouth 3.Fruity smell to breath 4.Lethargy(mental sluggishness) 5.Loss of consciousness(LOC) and coma
Treatment(Tx) of diabetic coma includes: administration of insulin and hydration
Insulin shock(deficient BS/blood sugar) results when a diabetic 1.Administers too much insulin 2.Does not eat enough food 3.Exercises excessively
Signs & symptoms of insulin shock(BS to low) include: 1.Shallow breathing 2.Diaphoresis(profuse sweating) 3.Syncope(fainting) 4.Loss of consciousness(LOC) and coma
Tx for insulin shock includes administration of sugar in any form
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions: *Follow prescribed diet exactly*Take prescribed insulin or hypoglycemics as directed*Monitor BS(blood sugar) every day *Follow daily exercise regiment*always wear feet protection to prevent injury from stubbing, fire ants, sand spurs, etc.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions continued: *Have a podiatrist take care of ANY foot needs IMMEDIATELY-clipping nails, corns,bunions,calluses,wounds to prevent accidental injury*Medical alert bracelet/ necklace worn always*Always check temp.of bathwater before stepping in bath to prevent scalding
Even a small wound to a diabetic's feet can result in uncontrolled infection due to poor wound healing & can eventually lead to putrefaction(gangrene)and amputation of the extremity
Diabetics that have DIFFICULTY controlling their blood sugar(BS) are called "brittle diabetics"
Other risk factors for Diabetes Mellitus(DM) include: 1.Highly irregular menses 2.More than 40 days between cycles 3.A waist size <40 inches in men & >35 inches in women
Some studies indicate that type II diabetes mellitus(DM) can double the risk of Alzheimer's disease(AD)
GTT stands for(diabetes test) Glucose Tolerance Test
PPBS stands for(diabetes test) PostPrandial (after meals) Blood Sugar(BS)
FBS(diabetes test) Fasting Blood Sugar
Ale(HbAlc) provides(new diabetes test) an average of your BS(blood sugar) control over a 6 to 12 week period
Fructosamine test(new diabetes tests) measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks
PBI (thyroid function test) Protein Bound Iodine
RAIU(thyroid function test) RadioActive Iodine Uptake Test
HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (serum and urine pregnancy test)
Created by: pattiluv