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# Biomechanicss

### Test 1

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What is biomechanics? | application of mechanical principles in the study of living organisms. |

Mechanics= | analysis of the action of force. |

What are the sub branches of biomechanics? | statics, dynamics, kinematics, and kinetics. |

What is statics? | study of systems in constant motion, (including zero motion). |

What is dynamics? | study of systems subject to acceleration. |

What is kinematics? | study of the appearance or description of motion. |

What is kinetics? | study of the actions of forces. |

What is kinesiology? | the study of human movement. |

What is sports medicine? | an umbrella term that encompasses both clinical and scientific aspects of exercise and sport. |

What is qualitative? | pertaining to quality (without the use of numbers). |

What is quantitative? | involving numbers. |

Superior is what? | closer to the head. |

Inferior is what? | farther away from the head. |

Anterior is what? | toward the front of the body. |

Posterior is what? | toward the back of the body. |

Medial is what? | toward the midline of the body. |

Lateral is what? | away from the midline of the body. |

Proximal is what? | closer to the trunk. |

Distal is what? | away from the trunk. |

Superficial is what? | toward the surface of the body. |

Deep is what? | inside the body away from the surface. |

Sagittal plane is what? | in which forward and backward movements occur. |

Frontal plane is what? | in which lateral movements occur. |

Transverse plane is what? | in which rotational movements occur. |

Sagittal= | left and right. |

Frontal= | front and back. |

Transverse= | top and bottom. |

Movements that occur in the sagittal plane? | flexion and extension. |

Movements that occur in the frontal plane? | adduction and abduction. |

Movements that occur in the transverse plane? | external and internal rotation. |

What is the mediolateral axis? | around which rotations in the sagittal plane occur. |

What is the anteroposterior axis? | around which rotations in the frontal plane occur. |

What is the longitudinal axis? | around which rotational movements occur. |

What are the forms of motion? | linear, rectilinear, curvilinear, angular, and general. |

Linear motion is what? | motion along a line. |

Rectilinear motion is what? | motion along a straight line. |

Curvilinear motion is what? | motion along a curved line. |

Angular motion is what? | rotation around an axis. |

General motion is what? | a combination of linear and angular motion (includes most human motion). |

What is a mechanical system? | a body or portion of a body that is deliberately chosen by the analyst. |

What is spatial reference systems useful for? | standardizing descriptions of human motion. |

The coordinate grid is most commonly called what? | Cartesian coordinate system. |

When doing a video you should plan for what? | performer attire, lighting conditions, background, and use of video. |

Mass is represented by what? | m |

Force is represented by what? | F |

Acceleration is represented by what? | a |

What is mass? | quantity of matter composing a body. |

What is units of mass? | kg |

What is acceleration? | a change in motion. |

F= | ma |

a= | F/m |

What are the units of acceleration? | m/s2 |

What is force? | a push or a pull. |

What is the units for force? | Newtons (N) |

What is a vector? | a vector is a visual representation of a force (typically using an arrow). |

What is a net force? | the single resultant force delivered from the vector composition of all the acting forces. |

What is inertia? | the tendency to resist change in state of motion. |

What are the units for inertia? | there are none! |

What is momentum? | a quantity of motion. |

M= | mv |

The bigger the object the more? | inertia it has. |

The bigger the object the more? | momentum it has. |

What is torque? | the rotary effect of a force. |

T= | Fd(perpendicular) |

What is the center of gravity? | point around which a body's weight is equally balanced in all directions. |

What is weight? | attractive force that the earth exerts on a body. |

wt.= | ma(gravity) |

What is gravity? | -9.8m/s2 |

What is the units of weight? | N |

What is pressure? | force per unit of area over which the force acts. |

What are the units for pressure? | N/m2 |

What is stress? | force per unit of area over which the force acts. |

Pressure is usually used to describe force within distribution within what? | a fluid. |

Stress is usually used to describe force distribution within what? | a solid. |

What are the units for stress? | N/m2 |

What is volume? | space occupied by a body. |

What are the three dimensions of volume? | width, height, and depth. |

What are the units for volume? | m3 and cm3 |

What is density? | mass per unit of volume. |

How is density represented? | rho (p). |

What are the units of density? | kg/m3 |

How much matter is in a certain object compared to its size is what? | density. |

What is specific weight? | weight per unit of volume. |

p= | m/vol |

y= | F/vol |

Specific weight is represented by what? | gamma (y). |

What are the units for specific weight? | N/m3 |

What is impulse? | the product of force and the time over which the force acts. |

What are the units of an impulse? | Ns |

What are the types of stress? | compression, tension, shear, bending, torsion, deformation, and repetitive and acute loading. |

What is compression? | pressing or squeezing force directed axially through a body. |

What is tension? | pulling or stretching force directed axially through a body. |

What is shear? | force directed parallel to a surface. |

What is bending? | asymmetric loading that produces tension on one side of a body's longitudinal axis and compression on the other side. |

What is torsion? | load producing twisting of a body around its longitudinal axis. |

What is deformation? | change in shape. |

What is vector composition? | process of determining a single vector from two or more vectors by vector addition. |

A vector is what? | it has a direction and a magnitude usually represented by the length of the arrow. |

Vector resolution is what? | operation that replaces a single vector with two perpendicular vectors such that the vector composition of the two perpendicular vector yields the original vector. |

Prior to "boxing in your answer" after solving a problem, what should you do? | make a "common sense" check of the answer. |

What is considered the starting point for all body segment movements? | anatomical position. |

A girl riding a bicycle down a straight road is an example of what type of motion? | general. |

What type of spacial reference system uses body joint centers labeled with x and y coordinates? | Cartesian coordinate system. |

What two data bases are useful when looking up exercise science related articles? | pubmed/medline and sport discus. |

What is measured with the units "m/s"? | velocity or speed. |

What is inversely proportional to mass? | acceleration. |

If a force is further from an axis than the resistance, it is said to have a(n) what? | mechanical advantage. |

What is also called the center of mass? | center of gravity. |

What is -9.8 m/s2? | acceleration of gravity. |

True or False. More massive objects fall faster due to gravity? | false. |

A person wearing a high heel shoe will apply more what to the ground vs. a tennis shoe? | stress. |

Impulse= | Ft |

Inertia is proportional to what? | mass. |

When a runner steps into a deep hole, what kind of force is applied to the tibia? | bending. |

What is the zone called when a deformed object still returns to its original shape after the load is removed? | elastic. |

True or False. An object's deformation curve is set and does not change. | False, it may change with the rate of loading. |

A dislocated shoulder is usually the result of what type of loading? | acute. |

Tennis elbow is usually the result of what type of loading? | repetitive. |

When using vectors, how do you tell which force is the greatest? | it will have the greatest length. |

What is the units for force? | Newtons (N) |

What is a vector? | a vector is a visual representation of a force (typically using an arrow). |

What is a net force? | the single resultant force delivered from the vector composition of all the acting forces. |

What is inertia? | the tendency to resist change in state of motion. |

What are the units for inertia? | there are none! |

What is momentum? | a quantity of motion. |

M= | mv |

The bigger the object the more? | inertia it has. |

The bigger the object the more? | momentum it has. |

What is torque? | the rotary effect of a force. |

T= | Fd(perpendicular) |

What is the center of gravity? | point around which a body's weight is equally balanced in all directions. |

What is weight? | attractive force that the earth exerts on a body. |

wt.= | ma(gravity) |

What is gravity? | -9.8m/s2 |

What is the units of weight? | N |

What is pressure? | force per unit of area over which the force acts. |

What are the units for pressure? | N/m2 |

What is stress? | force per unit of area over which the force acts. |

Pressure is usually used to describe force within distribution within what? | a fluid. |

Stress is usually used to describe force distribution within what? | a solid. |

What are the units for stress? | N/m2 |

What is volume? | space occupied by a body. |

What are the three dimensions of volume? | width, height, and depth. |

What are the units for volume? | m3 and cm3 |

What is density? | mass per unit of volume. |

How is density represented? | rho (p). |

What are the units of density? | kg/m3 |

How much matter is in a certain object compared to its size is what? | density. |

What is specific weight? | weight per unit of volume. |

p= | m/vol |

y= | F/vol |

Specific weight is represented by what? | gamma (y). |

What are the units for specific weight? | N/m3 |

What is impulse? | the product of force and the time over which the force acts. |

What are the units of an impulse? | Ns |

What are the types of stress? | compression, tension, shear, bending, torsion, deformation, and repetitive and acute loading. |

What is compression? | pressing or squeezing force directed axially through a body. |

What is tension? | pulling or stretching force directed axially through a body. |

What is shear? | force directed parallel to a surface. |

What is bending? | asymmetric loading that produces tension on one side of a body's longitudinal axis and compression on the other side. |

What is torsion? | load producing twisting of a body around its longitudinal axis. |

What is deformation? | change in shape. |

What is vector composition? | process of determining a single vector from two or more vectors by vector addition. |

A vector is what? | it has a direction and a magnitude usually represented by the length of the arrow. |

Vector resolution is what? | operation that replaces a single vector with two perpendicular vectors such that the vector composition of the two perpendicular vector yields the original vector. |

Prior to "boxing in your answer" after solving a problem, what should you do? | make a "common sense" check of the answer. |

What is considered the starting point for all body segment movements? | anatomical position. |

A girl riding a bicycle down a straight road is an example of what type of motion? | general. |

What type of spacial reference system uses body joint centers labeled with x and y coordinates? | Cartesian coordinate system. |

What two data bases are useful when looking up exercise science related articles? | pubmed/medline and sport discus. |

What is measured with the units "m/s"? | velocity or speed. |

What is inversely proportional to mass? | acceleration. |

If a force is further from an axis than the resistance, it is said to have a(n) what? | mechanical advantage. |

What is also called the center of mass? | center of gravity. |

What is -9.8 m/s2? | acceleration of gravity. |

True or False. More massive objects fall faster due to gravity? | false. |

A person wearing a high heel shoe will apply more what to the ground vs. a tennis shoe? | stress. |

Impulse= | Ft |

Inertia is proportional to what? | mass. |

When a runner steps into a deep hole, what kind of force is applied to the tibia? | bending. |

What is the zone called when a deformed object still returns to its original shape after the load is removed? | elastic. |

True or False. An object's deformation curve is set and does not change. | False, it may change with the rate of loading. |

A dislocated shoulder is usually the result of what type of loading? | acute. |

Tennis elbow is usually the result of what type of loading? | repetitive. |

When using vectors, how do you tell which force is the greatest? | it will have the greatest length. |

Biomechanics is heavily used to treat and prevent sports-related injuries. True or False. | True. |

Space flight has special problems with it. After a long space flight what would you start to loose? | bone mass, muscle mass, and cardiovascular performance. |

This the branch of mechanics dealing with systems in a constant state of motion (could be at rest=no motion) | statics. |

What is the branch of mechanics dealing with systems subject to acceleration? | dynamics. |

This is a measurement term and is related to the dimensions and weights of body segments | anthrometrics. |

Most human motion is what? | general. |

What is an example of angular motion? | merry-go-round. |

What is an example of linear motion? | slide tackling someone on the soccer field but the player ins't slide tackling from an angle so just straight on, in a straight line. |

During all human angular motion, the axis or rotation is always through the body of the athlete. True or False. | False. |

Created by:
danreid