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geography_

nature and perspectives

QuestionAnswer
Sequent occupance The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape. This is an important concept in geography because it symbolizes how humans interact with their surroundings.
Cultural landscape Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group. This is the essence of how humans interact with nature.
Arithmetic density The total number of people divided by the total land area. This is what most people think of as density; how many people per area of land.
Physiological density The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. This is important because it relates to how much land is being used by how many people.
Hearth The region from which innovative ideas originate. This relates to the important concept of the spreading of ideas from one area to another (diffusion).
Diffusion: The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
Relocation diffusion : The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another. Ex: spread of AIDS from New York, California, & Florida
Expansion diffusion The spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process. This can happen in 3 ways:Hierarchical diffusion,Contagious diffusion,and Stimulus diffusion
Hierarchical diffusion The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places (Ex: hip-hop/rap music)
Contagious diffusion The rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population. (Ex: ideas placed on the internet)
Stimulus diffusion : the spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse. (Ex: PC & Apple competition
Absolute distance Exact measurement of the physical space between two places
Relative distance Approximate measurement of the physical space between two places
Distribution: The arrangement of something across Earth’s surface
Environmental determinism Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities
Absolute location Position on Earth’s surface using the coordinate system of longitude (that runs from North to South Pole) and latitude (that runs parallel to the equator
Relative location : Position on Earth’s surface relative to other features. (Ex: My house is west of 394).
Site : The physical character of place; what is found at the location and why it is significant
Situation The location of a place relative to other places
Space Time Compression The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation system
Friction of distance is based on the notion that distance usually requires some amount of effort money and/or engergy to overcome. Spatial interactions will tend to to take place more oftn over shorter distances; quantity of interaction will decay with distance
Distance Decay The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
networks defined by Manuel Castells as a set of interconnected nodes without a center
connectivity the relationships among people and objects acros the barrier of space. Geographers are concerned with the various means by which connections occur
Accessibility The degree of ease with which it is possible to reach certain location from other locations. Accessibility varies from place to place and can be measured.
space Refers to the physical gap or interval between two objects
spatial distribution Physical location of geographic phenomena across space
size is the estimation or determination of extent
scale Representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization. In cartography, the ratio of map distance to ground distance, indicated on a map as a bar graph, representative fraction, and/or verbal statement.
formal region(uniform) homogenous region is an area whithin which everyone shares in commmon one or mare distinctive characteristics the shared feature could be a cultural value such as a common language, or an environmental climate.
functional region(nodal region) Area organized around a node or focal point. Remember home phone
vernacular region (perceptual region) a place that people believe exsits as a part of their cultural identity
possibilism the physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to their environment.
pattern a common property of distribution, which is the geometric arrangement of objects in space. Some features are organized in a geometric pattern, whereas others are distributed irregularly.
place name often reffered to as a places toponym (the name given to a place on Earth).
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