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ENT Exam 1

Pediatric ENT

QuestionAnswer
What are some tx options for a child with URI rhinorrhea and congestion? Saline spray (2 sprays q nostril) Follow w/bulb suction syringe or nose-blowing Cool-mist humidifier Steamy bath Elevated head of bed (under mattress for infants)
What is the most common cause of URI/cold in peds? Virus
What is the most appropriate type of tx for URIs in peds (think viral vs. bacterial)? Supportive
What is common in peds in regards to persistent rhinorrhea and congestion? Typical to have 1 URI/month Each URI typically lasts ~21 days
When do allergies begin to develop in a child? At about 12 months old
An 9-month-old is brought into your office by her mother. The child has a cold, and the mother wants you to treat it so it will go away quickly. She is also concerned that the child is allergic to their dog. What would you tell her? Colds/URIs are typically viral in children Abx are not indicated at this point Suggest supportive tx for URIs URIs also usually last for ~21 days and recur often Allergies will not develop until 12 months of age
What peds does allergic rhinitis affect? 20-40% of peds Occurs in peds > 1 year old
What percentage of allergic rhinitis cases in peds are seasonal? 20%
Common signs/symptoms of allergic rhinitis Rhinorrhea Nasal congestion Sniffling Mouth-breathing Allergic salute Nasal crease (due to salute) Snoring
Allergic rhinitis tx Avoid allergens Nasal steroids
What is a concern about treating with nasal steroids? Can be drying Epistaxis
How can the side effects of nasal steroids be reduced? Use 2 sprays saline before the steroid spray Point spray laterally towards side of head
How long does allergic rhinitis take to resolve? About 2-3 weeks
Common co-morbidities of allergic rhinitis Chronic sinusitis Asthma (38% have asthma) If asthma is present, may check for atopic dermatitis
What is the only sinus cavity that is pneumatized until ~4 years old? Ethmoid
At ~4 years old, what sinus cavities are pneumatized? Maxillary Ethmoid
At ~5 years old, what sinus cavities are pneumatized? Sphenoid Maxillary Ethmoid
At 6-8 years old, what sinus cavities are pneumatized? Frontal Sphenoid Maxillary Ethmoid
What sinus cavity is pneumatized at birth? Ethmoid
At ~4 years old, what sinus cavities are pneumatized? Maxillary Ethmoid
At ~5 years old, what sinus cavities are pneumatized? Sphenoid Maxillary Ethmoid
At 6-8 years old, what sinus cavities are pneumatized? Frontal Sphenoid Maxillary Ethmoid
Created by: Carrie D.