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Adams HCHS AP Human Geo. Rubenstein Ch2

crude birth rate (CBR) Total number of live births per year for every 1,000 people alive
crude death rate (CDR) Total number of deaths per year for every 1,000 people alive
demographic transition The process of change in a society's population from a condition of a high CBR and CDR and low NIR to a condition of a low CBR, CDR, and NIR with a higher total population
demography The scientific study of population characteristics
dependency ratio The number of people under age 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force
doubling time Number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
epidemiologic transition Focuses on distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
epidemiology The branch of medical service concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality.
ecumene A portion of the Earth occupied by permanent human settlement
Industrial Revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
infant mortality rate (IMR) Annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age per 1000 live births in a society
life expectancy The average number of years a newborn can hope to live from birth
Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that has diffused to the poorer countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.
natural increase rate (NIR) The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the CBR minus the CDR.
overpopulation A situation in which the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
pandemic A disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
sex ratio The number of males per 100 females in the population.
total fertility rate (TFR) Average number of children a woman will have during childbearing years
zero population growth (ZPG) A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero
population pyramid A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
agricultural density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of arable land (land suitable for agriculture).
arithmetic density The total number of people divided by the total land area.
census A complete enumeration of a population
Physiological density The number of people per unit of area of arable land (land suitable for agriculture)
antinatalist policy Government policy that supports lower birth rates.
pronatalist policy Government policy that supports higher birth rates.
Created by: flordaman